Invasive Pneumococcal and Meningococcal Disease

This review focuses on current knowledge of the epidemiology, prevention, and treatment of invasive pneumococcal (IPD) and meningococcal disease (IMD). IPD decreased significantly with the introduction of effective conjugate vaccines but is on the rise again. Effective antibiotic therapy of IPD includes the combination of a beta-lactam and a macrolide with additional considerations in meningitis. Steroids are mandatory in pneumococcal meningitis but not indicated in pneumococcal pneumonia except in the setting of refractory shock. There is increasing concern about the cardiovascular complications of IPD. IMD continues to be a significant health problem with major concerns about rising antibiotic resistance.
Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research

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Conclusion: According to WHO-recommended thresholds for interpreting cost-effectiveness, introduction of PCV-13 for children under 5 years in the Islamic Republic of Iran would be cost-effective. PMID: 31774134 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal - Category: Middle East Health Tags: East Mediterr Health J Source Type: research
This collection of resources has been relaunched for 2019. The campaignurges people to always take their doctor's, pharmacist's or nurse's advice on antibiotics. It provides effective self-care advice to help people and their families feel better if they are not prescribed antibiotics. Antibiotics are essential to treat serious bacterial infections such as pneumonia, meningitis and sepsis. They also help to ward off infections during chemotherapy, caesarean sections and other surgeries. However, while antibiotics are vital to treating life-threatening infections, they are frequently being used to treat less serious illness...
Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH) - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Objectives: To perform a comprehensive description of the epidemiology of Streptococcus pyogenes invasive disease in the pediatric population in 2 regions of Spain (Catalonia and Gipuzkoa) through 12 years. Methods: All S. pyogenes isolates causing invasive disease in pediatric patients between 2005 and 2016 were included. The emm-type and the presence of 13 exotoxin genes (speA, speB, speC, speF, speG, speH, speI, speJ, speK, speL, speM, smeZ, ssa and slo) were determined in all 93 available isolates and the Multi Locus Sequece Typing in 10% of isolates of each different emm-type. Results: Overall, 103 cases of S....
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research
During my nine years in the NFL, I ruptured tendons in my fingers, suffered multiple concussions, and broke several bones. I tore my ACL, MCL, and PCL, and completely blew out my left knee. That last injury should have ended my career. But it didn’t. I put myself back together and played through the pain. What finally took me down? A tiny bug I had never heard of and couldn’t see. A drug-resistant staph infection called methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus cost me my NFL career—and almost my life. MRSA is one of many deadly, antibiotic-resistant infections. Together, these “superbugs” k...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized health Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 16 November 2019Source: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Renan Barros Domingues, Márcio Vega dos Santos, Fernando Brunale Vilela de Moura Leite, Carlos SenneAbstractThe precise diagnosis of bacterial meningitis is essential. Cytological and biochemical examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are not specific. Conventional methods for bacterial meningitis lack sensitivity or take too long for a final result. Therefore, other methods for rapid and accurate diagnosis of central nervous system infections are required. FilmArray meningitis/encephalitis (ME) panel ...
Source: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Abstract The precise diagnosis of bacterial meningitis is essential. Cytological and biochemical examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are not specific. Conventional methods for bacterial meningitis lack sensitivity or take too long for a final result. Therefore, other methods for rapid and accurate diagnosis of central nervous system infections are required. FilmArray meningitis/encephalitis (ME) panel is a PCR multiplex for simultaneous and rapid identification of 14 pathogens, including 6 bacteria, 7 viruses, and Cryptococcus. We evaluated 436 CSF samples submitted to FilmArray ME Panel. Among them, 25 cases...
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research
ConclusionThe countries in this region needs to work hard to reduce this burden. This requires huge investment especially the finance and human resource development.
Source: International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences - Category: African Health Source Type: research
Cryptococcus neoformans, a basidiomycetous yeast, is a fungal pathogen that can colonize the lungs of humans causing pneumonia and fungal meningitis in severely immunocompromised individuals. Recent studies have ...
Source: BMC Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
Authors: Tilahun GT Abstract In this paper, we proposed a deterministic model of pneumonia-meningitis coinfection. We used a system of seven ordinary differential equations. Firstly, the qualitative behaviours of the model such as positivity of the solution, existence of the solution, the equilibrium points, basic reproduction number, analysis of equilibrium points, and sensitivity analysis are studied. The disease-free equilibrium is locally asymptotically stable if the basic reproduction number is kept less than unity, and conditions for global stability are established. Then, the basic model is extended to optim...
Source: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine - Category: Statistics Tags: Comput Math Methods Med Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Cryptococcal ocular involvement in AIDS patients has been occasionally proved among the cases already reported. Thus, the post mortem exam is still pivotal to improve the quality of the clinical diagnosis, especially in limited-resource settings. PMID: 31676212 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Revista Iberoamericana de Micologia - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Rev Iberoam Micol Source Type: research
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