Aspirin-loaded nanoexosomes as cancer therapeutics

In this study, the anti-tumour effects of nanoamorphous aspirin-loaded exosomes with exosomes derived from breast and colorectal cancer cells, were comprehensively studied using both in vitro and in vivo models. These exosomes displayed enhanced cellular uptake via both clathrin-dependent and -independent endocytosis pathways, and significantly improved cytotoxicity of aspirin to breast and colorectal cancer cells, accompanied by the enhanced apoptosis and autophagy. Remarkably, this nanoamorphous exosomal platform endowed aspirin with the unprecedented cancer stem cell eradication capacity. Further animal study demonstrated that this developed exosomal system was able to efficiently deliver aspirin to in vivo tumours. The active targeting of these exosomes to tumour was further improved by conjugating an aptamer specifically targeting EpCAM protein. Hence, this nanoamorphous structured exosome system effectively transformed aspirin into a potential cancer stem cell killer with distinguished properties for clinical translation.Graphical abstract
Source: International Journal of Pharmaceutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

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Abstract The intestine serves mainly as a place for digestion and absorption and functions as an immune and endocrine organ. Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) play critical roles in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and regeneration, and a complex of signaling pathways is involved in these processes. The Notch signaling pathway is induced via distinct cell-to-cell connections, which are activated through the binding of the Notch ligand on the surface of niche cells to the Notch receptor on ISCs. Numerous studies have shown the central importance of Notch signaling in the proliferation and differentiation of ISC...
Source: Current Stem Cell Research and Therapy - Category: Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Curr Stem Cell Res Ther Source Type: research
Authors: Fujita J, Sakurai T Abstract Gankyrin (also called PSMD10, p28, or p28GANK) is a crucial oncoprotein that is upregulated in various cancers and assumed to play pivotal roles in the initiation and progression of tumors. Although the in vitro function of gankyrin is relatively well characterized, its role in vivo remains to be elucidated. We have investigated the function of gankyrin in vivo by producing mice with liver parenchymal cell-specific gankyrin ablation (Alb-Cre;gankyrinf/f) and gankyrin deletion both in liver parenchymal and in non-parenchymal cells (Mx1-Cre;gankyrinf/f). Gankyrin defici...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Contributors : Bing Han ; Saisai Wei ; Sujun Yan ; Tiezheng Li ; Jie Xiang ; Kangli Liu ; Rongpan Bai ; Jinghao Sheng ; Zhengping Xu ; Xiangwei GaoSeries Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing ; OtherOrganism : Homo sapiensWnt/ β-catenin signaling is essential for intestinal stem cell homeostasis and aberrant activation of this signaling leads to tumorigenesis. Here we report a function of YTHDF1, an mRNA m6A reader, in mediating β-catenin hyperactivation. Wnt signaling promotes YTHDF1 expression at the translational lev el. YTHDF1 is dispensable for normal intestinal development in mice while ...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Other Homo sapiens Source Type: research
Tumor microenvironment interacts with tumor cells, establishing an atmosphere to contribute or suppress the tumor development. Among the cells which play a role in the tumor microenvironment, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated to possess the ability to orchestrate the fate of tumor cell, drawing the attentions to the field. MSCs have been considered as cells with double-bladed effects, implicating either tumorigenic or anti-tumor activity. On the other side, the promising potential of MSCs in treating human cancer cells has been observed from the clinical studies. Among the beneficial characteristics of M...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In conclusion, our data show how oncogenic and tumor-suppressive drivers of cellular senescence act to regulate surveillance processes that can be circumvented to enable SnCs to elude immune recognition but can be reversed by cell surface-targeted interventions to purge the SnCs that persist in vitro and in patients. Since eliminating SnCs can prevent tumor progression, delay the onset of degenerative diseases, and restore fitness; since NKG2D-Ls are not widely expressed in healthy human tissues and NKG2D-L shedding is an evasion mechanism also employed by tumor cells; and since increasing numbers of B cells express NKG2D ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
In this study we used a fragment-based approach to create new flexible G-quadruplex (G4) DNA interactive small molecules with good calculated oral drug-like properties, based on quinoline and triazole heterocycles. G4 melting temperature and Polymerase Chain Reaction-stop assays showed that two of these compounds are selective G4 ligands, since they were able to induce and stabilize G4s in a dose- and DNA sequence-dependent manner. Molecular docking studies have suggested plausible quadruplex binding to both the G-quartet and groove, with the quinoline module playing the major role. Compounds were screened for cytotoxicity...
Source: ChemMedChem - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: ChemMedChem Source Type: research
Marjolein Schluck1,2, Roel Hammink1,2, Carl G. Figdor1,2,3, Martijn Verdoes1,3*† and Jorieke Weiden1,2,3*† 1Department of Tumor Immunology, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, Netherlands 2Division of Immunotherapy, Oncode Institute, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, Netherlands 3Institute for Chemical Immunology, Nijmegen, Netherlands Traditional tumor vaccination approaches mostly focus on activating dendritic cells (DCs) by providing them with a source of tumor antigens and/or adjuvants, which in turn activate tumor-reactive T c...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Discussion MDSCs violently emerge in pathological conditions in an attempt to limit potentially harmful immune and inflammatory responses. Mechanisms supporting their expansion and survival are deeply investigated in cancer, in the perspective to reactivate specific antitumor responses and prevent their contribution to disease evolution. These findings will likely contribute to improve the targeting of MDSCs in anticancer immunotherapies, either alone or in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors. New evidence indicates that the expansion of myeloid cell differentiation in pathology is subject to fine-tuning, as its...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusion MTDH is pro-oncogenic factor playing multifaceted and diverse roles in cancer progression. Its association and central role in regulating signaling pathways such a MAPK, wnt/β-catenin, PI3K/AkT, NF-κβ pathways in various cancers shows that it plays a vital role in metastasis. MTDH contribution to chemo and radiotherapy resistance provides a new direction for the development of anticancer therapeutics. Multiple mechanisms converge to promote expression of MTDH in cancers. Further studies are therefore warranted to determine whether the elevated MTDH expression has prognostic value for development...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusion and Future Perspectives This review illustrates our current knowledge of USP7, including its source and characterization, structure, binding partners and substrates in various biological processes. Besides, how USP7 regulates various aspects of a cell under both normal and pathological states are elaborated in detail. As the processes of ubiquitination and deubiquitination are extremely dynamic and context-specific, a series of studies have linked USP7 to different cancers. The biology, particularly the immune oncology mechanisms, reveal that USP7 inhibitors would be useful drugs, thus it is vital to develop hi...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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