The Director of the NIH Lays Out His Vision of the Future of Medical Science
Our world has never witnessed a time of greater promise for improving human health. Many of today’s health advances have stemmed from a long arc of discovery that begins with strong, steady support for basic science. In large part because of fundamental research funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which traces its roots to 1887, Americans are living longer, healthier lives. Life expectancy for a baby born in the U.S. has risen from 47 years in 1900 to more than 78 years today. Among the advances that have helped to make this possible are a 70% decline in the U.S. death rate from cardiovascular disease over the past 50 years, and a drop of more than 1% annually in the cancer death rate over the past couple of decades. As one more dramatic example, thanks to remarkable advances in antiretroviral drugs, most Americans with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can now look forward to an almost normal life span. Yet, despite this astounding progress, much more remains to be done. Among the many efforts now poised to change the future of health are those to harness the power of gene editing, expand the reach of cancer immunotherapy, map the human brain and build a solid foundation for a more individualized approach to health care, often called precision medicine. And along with the bright promise of preventing, treating and curing some of humankind’s most feared diseases come some crucial questions about how to ensure such breakthroughs are applied both e...
AbstractBackgroundUntil now, there is no clear conclusion on the relationship between the surgical margin status after radical prostatectomy (RP) and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM). Therefore, we conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis based on all eligible case –control studies.MethodsA systematic and comprehensive literature search was performed based on PUBMED and EMBASE to identify all of the potentially relevant publications which were published before September 2019. Hazard ratio (HR) for PCSM was independently extracted by two reviewers from all eligible studies. Pooled HR estimates with ...
AbstractPurposeTo identify patients with metastatic urothelial cancer (mUC) unlikely to benefit from immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs).Methods/PatientsWe explored the predictive and prognostic values of baseline neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), with cut-offs ≥ 3 and ≥ 5, and of a urothelial immune prognostic index (UIPI, based on increased NLR and LDH), on 146 patients.ResultsNLR and UIPI significantly predicted progressive disease and progression-free survival with both cut-offs (p = 0.0069,p = 0.0034,p = 0.0160,p = 0.0063;p
ConclusionsIn conclusion, both the venous access catheter selection algorithm and the proposed recommendations aim to respond to the needs revealed in clinical practice and to become an integrable tool in electronic prescription systems to offer homogeneous criteria for action in cancer patients that require venous access, optimizing the use of available health resources with the highest safety and quality of life for the patient.
ConclusionmiR-1976 may serve as a promising non-invasive biomarker for the diagnosis of BC in the future.
AbstractIn this update of the consensus of the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology (Sociedad Espa ñola de Oncología Médica—SEOM) and the Spanish Society of Pathology (Sociedad Española de Anatomía Patológica—SEAP), advances in the analysis of biomarkers in advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) as well as susceptibility markers of hereditary CRC and molecular biomarkers of localized CRC are reviewed. Recently published information on the essential determination ofKRAS,NRAS andBRAF mutations and the convenience of determining the amplification of human epidermal growth factor ...
Expect another 30 to 40 years of increasing numbers of HPV-related oropharynx cancers, said an expert.Medscape Medical News
Publication date: Available online 20 September 2020Source: Materials Today: ProceedingsAuthor(s): Vani Ramesh, Ramanathan
There is good news and bad news when it comes to our understanding of inflammation in the pathogenesis and treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). The bad news is that, like the dexamethasone suppression test or the efficacy of antidepressants before it, inflammation is oversold as an answer to the mystery of depression and its treatment. The good news is that an unusually replicable set of findings (for psychiatry) increasingly paints a consistent picture of the ways in which inflammation is of value in understanding MDD.
Challenges to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with psychiatric disorders have long been acknowledged in the field. In recent years, efforts have been made to identify genomic biomarkers for psychiatric disorders. A link between immune function and major depressive disorder (MDD) has been suggested for decades (1), but the identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that underlie immune function as biomarkers for MDD has been more recent. Hundreds of DEGs have been reported for transcriptome-wide association studies (TWASs) of MDD.
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