How evolutionary psychiatry can advance psychopharmacology 

How evolutionary psychiatry can advance psychopharmacology
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019;21(2):167-175 Authors: Nesse RM, Stein DJ Abstract The prevailing paradigm for psychopharmacology focuses on understanding brain mechanisms as the key to finding new medications and improving clinical outcomes, but frustration with slow progress has inspired many pleas for new approaches. Evolutionary psychiatry brings in an additional basic science that poses new questions about why natural selection left us vulnerable to so many mental disorders, and new insights about how drugs work. The integration of neuroscience with evolutionary psychiatry is synergistic, going beyond reductionism to provide a model like the one used by the rest of medicine. It recognizes negative emotions as symptoms, that are, like pain and cough, useful defenses whose presence should initiate a search for causes. An integrative evolutionary approach explains why agents that block useful aversive responses are usually safe, and how to anticipate when they may cause harm. More generally, an evolutionary framework suggests novel practical strategies for finding and testing new drugs.
. PMID: 31636491 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

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The limitations of clinical decision rules1 are exemplified by the performance of the Wells criteria in primary care.2 The latter study enrolled 598 patients in whom the general practitioner considered that pulmonary embolism might be present. Suspicion of pulmonary embolism was based on the presence of 1 or more of the following symptoms: unexplained (sudden) dyspnea, deterioration in existing dyspnea, pleuritic pain, and unexplained cough. After recording the Wells score, the primary care doctor was required to refer the patient to secondary care for further evaluation.
Source: The American Journal of Medicine - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Letter Source Type: research
Discussion The pericardium is a bi-layered membrane that envelops the heart and provides a barrier to prevent disease and also decreases friction as the heart moves. Pericarditis is the inflammation of pericardium. The incidence is underreported as asymptomatic or mild disease may go unrecognized. From hospitalized patient data, 0.2-5% of patients with various cardiac disease had pericarditis. An incidence rate for hospitalizations of 3.32 per 100,000 person years has been cited. Percarditis occurs more often in adolescent males. Treatment of the underlying cause or suspected cause is important, along with close monitorin...
Source: - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
This article describes concept of OTC medicines and practices in India against the background of globally prevalent regulations and practices. A recognized category of OTC medicines by law, patient awareness programs, and support of pharmacists and pharmaceutical companies are required to optimize the use of OTC medicines in India.
Source: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
A 51-year-old man presented with cough and pain in his upper chest for 1 week. Chest CT showed an ill-defined right paratracheal mass with slight enhancement in the upper mediastinum. A FDG PET/CT was performed showing focal increased FDG uptake with SUVmax of 4.7 in the mass. The mass was excised surgically. Histopathologic examination revealed infected bronchogenic cyst.
Source: Clinical Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Tags: Interesting Images Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 7 January 2020Source: Journal of EthnopharmacologyAuthor(s): Diana Giles-Rivas, Samuel Estrada-Soto, A. Berenice Aguilar-Guadarrama, Julio Almanza-Pérez, Sara García-Jiménez, Blanca Colín-Lozano, Gabriel Navarrete-Vázquez, Rafael Villalobos-MolinaAbstractEthnopharmacological importance Cordia morelosanaStandley (Boraginaceae) is commonly used in folk medicine for the treatment of diarrhoea, kidney inflammation, diabetes, lung pain, bronchitis, asthma, hoarseness, cough and fever.AimCurrent work was conducted to develop a bio-guided isolation of antidiabe...
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Publication date: January 2020Source: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases Supplements, Volume 12, Issue 1Author(s): B. Ellenga Mbolla, C.Y. Datsé, R. Atipo Galloye, S.F. Mongo Ngamami, I. Ondze Kafata, S.G. Kimbally KakyBackgroundPericardial diseases (PD) are varied in tropical area, and the major causes are infections.PurposeTo determine the frequency and the main diseases of pericardium.MethodsThis cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2008 to December 2017 in the department of cardiology at University Hospital of Brazzaville. We had included, the patients admitted for PD.ResultsA total of 113 patients,...
Source: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases Supplements - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
Authors: Underner M, Peiffer G, Perriot J, Jaafari N Abstract Cocaine can be responsible for many psychiatric and/or somatic disorders. The aim of this systematic literature review of data was to expose relations between cocaine use and pulmonary complications. Cocaine can be responsible for acute respiratory symptoms (cough, black sputum, hemoptysis, dyspnea, wheezing, chest pain) and for various pulmonary disorders including barotrauma (pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, subcutaneous emphysema, pneumopericardium), airway damage, asthma, bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia, acute pulmonary edema, alve...
Source: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Rev Mal Respir Source Type: research
Abstract CASE PRESENTATION: A 64-year-old man presented for consideration for lung transplant. He had a history of previous tobacco use, OSA on CPAP therapy, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. He worked as a design engineer. The patient had a 4-year history of dyspnea on exertion, followed with periodic CT scan of the chest. Nine months prior to his evaluation for lung transplant, the patient developed worsening of dyspnea, dry cough, poor appetite, and weight loss. At times, the cough was violent and associated with chest pressure. He was prescribed systemic corticosteroids and antibiotics without improvement. ...
Source: Chest - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Chest Source Type: research
A Woman With Dyspnea, Weight Loss, and Splenic Lesions. Chest. 2020 Jan;157(1):e13-e16 Authors: Hanberg JS, Dunne D Abstract CASE PRESENTATION: The patient is a 37-year-old hospital employee and current smoker with a 10 pack-year smoking history, who presented with dyspnea, chest pain, and weight loss. She was in her usual state of health until 4 months prior to admission when she developed intermittent left-sided chest pain, cough productive of scant yellow sputum, fevers, and anorexia. Initial chest radiograph was normal and her outpatient physician prescribed azithromycin, which she took ...
Source: Chest - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Chest Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Spinal analgesia and transversus abdominus plane blocks best balanced pain control and opiate minimization in the immediate postoperative phase following colorectal resection. Multimodal analgesia reduces pain, minimizes systemic opiate use and optimizes postoperative recovery. PMID: 31903601 [PubMed - in process]
Source: The British Journal of Surgery - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Br J Surg Source Type: research
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