Inhibition by Marine Algae of Chikungunya Virus Isolated From Patients in a Recent Disease Outbreak in Rio de Janeiro

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection is one of the most challenging re-emergent diseases caused by a virus, and with no specific antiviral treatment it has now become a major public health concern. In this investigation, 25 blood samples were collected from patients with characteristic CHIKV symptoms and submitted to a virus isolation protocol, which detected 3 CHIKV isolates. These samples were evaluated by sequencing for the characterization of the strains and any homology to viruses circulating in Brazil during a recent outbreak. These viruses were used for the development of antiviral assays. Subsequently, the inhibitory effects of seaweed extracts on CHIKV replication were studied. The marine species of algae tested were Bryothamnion triquetrum, Caulerpa racemosa, Laurencia dendroidea, Osmundaria obtusiloba, Ulva fasciata, and Kappaphycus alvarezii, all of which are found in different countries including Brazil. The results revealed high levels of CHIKV inhibition, including extracts of O. obtusiloba with inhibition values of 1.25 μg/mL and a selectivity index of 420. Viral inhibition was dependent on the time of addition of extract of O. obtusiloba to the infected cells, with the optimal inhibition occurring up to 16 h after infection. Neuron evaluations with O. obtusiloba were performed and demonstrated low toxicity, and in infected neurons we observed high inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that the algal extracts may be promising...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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Canadian Journal of Microbiology, e-First Articles. Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from Zika forest, Uganda, in 1947. Since its inception, major and minor outbreaks have been documented from several parts of world. Aedes spp. mosquitoes are the primary vectors of ZIKV, but the virus can also be transmitted through sexual practices, materno-fetal transmission, and blood transfusion. The clinical presentations of symptomatic ZIKV infections are similar to dengue and chikungunya, including fever, headache, arthralgia, retro-orbital pain, conjunctivitis, and rash. ZIKV often causes mild ill...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Source Type: research
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Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Abstract Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an alphavirus that is endemic to the Americas. VEEV outbreaks occur periodically and cause encephalitis in both humans and equids. There are currently no therapeutics or vaccines for treatment of VEEV in humans. Our group has previously reported on the development of a benzamidine VEEV inhibitor, ML336, which shows potent antiviral activity in both in vitro and in vivo models of infection. In cell culture experiments, ML336 inhibits viral RNA synthesis when added 2-4 h post-infection, and mutations conferring resistance occur within the viral nonstructural ...
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research
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Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Observational Study Source Type: research
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Source: Medical Journal Armed Forces India - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
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Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research
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Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
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Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
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Source: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz Source Type: research
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Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
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