Risk Factors for Rubella Transmission in Kuyu District, Ethiopia, 2018: A Case-Control Study.

Risk Factors for Rubella Transmission in Kuyu District, Ethiopia, 2018: A Case-Control Study. Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis. 2019;2019:4719636 Authors: Abdulkadir A, Gebrehiwot TT Abstract Background: Rubella is a vaccine-preventable disease associated with a significant morbidity and adverse pregnancy outcomes, mainly if acquired in the first trimester of pregnancy with serious consequences to the fetus. Despite increased episodes of rubella epidemics (127 outbreaks in 2009-2015), rubella national vaccination is not yet introduced in Ethiopia. In January 2018, an increase of fever and rash cases was reported in Kuyu District of Oromia. We investigated the outbreak to confirm rubella, determine risk factors, and guide interventions. Methods: We identified rubella cases from health centers and conducted a case-control study (1 case : 2 controls) with 150 participants, from March 12 to 15, 2018. Cases were people who presented with fever and rash or laboratory-confirmed cases. Controls were age matched (
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 28 May 2019Source: EpidemicsAuthor(s): Brooke A. Bozick, Colin J. Worby, C. Jessica E. MetcalfAbstractRubella virus causes mild disease in children but for women in the early stages of pregnancy, it can cause spontaneous abortion, congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) and associated birth defects. Despite the availability of an effective vaccine, rubella virus continues to circulate endemically in several regions of the world. This is particularly true in East and Southeast (E/SE) Asia, where control efforts vary widely among countries that are well connected through travel and immigration. I...
Source: Epidemics - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
Conclusions Apart West Nile virus (78), thousands of congenital microcephaly cases, fetal brain tissue damage and neurological syndromes have been associated with ZIKV infection. Unfortunately, the epidemics of this mosquito born, and a relative stable virus is on a rise. Although congenital microcephaly is a rare disorder however, due to lack of standardized diagnostic test facilities, the incidence in the geographically widespread ZIKV epidemic regions is higher. Animals studies showed that ZIKV is a neurotropic virus. It directly targets the developing embryonic brain cells by inducing apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, and...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
This study included more recent evidence compared to the previous one. The Bradford-Hill Viewpoints are used in public health to determine causation of diseases.11 Systematic application of the viewpoints can assist with analysing a possible causal relationship. Additional studies to assess the risk of microcephaly in affected pregnant mothers are ongoing.12 In this study we applied the Bradford-Hill viewpoints to investigate the association between Zika virus and Microcephaly. Method Using the Bradford Hills nine viewpoints we analysed data from a 2013 outbreak in French Polynesia and the 2015 Brazilian outbreak to esta...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Source Type: research
This study included more recent evidence compared to the previous one. The Bradford-Hill Viewpoints are used in public health to determine causation of diseases.11 Systematic application of the viewpoints can assist with analysing a possible causal relationship. Additional studies to assess the risk of microcephaly in affected pregnant mothers are ongoing.12 In this study we applied the Bradford-Hill viewpoints to investigate the association between Zika virus and Microcephaly. Method Using the Bradford Hills nine viewpoints we analysed data from a 2013 outbreak in French Polynesia and the 2015 Brazilian outbreak to esta...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Source Type: research
Introduction The impacts of rubella infection during pregnancy have been recognized since the pioneering work of Norman Gregg following introductions of this pathogen into communities in Australia during the Second World War1. Theoretical research into the characteristics of the population burden of pathogens with this unique manifestation followed2; and the teratogenic outcomes of rubella3 and their implications across diverse demographic, epidemiological and control settings4,5,6,7 are currently well described. In particular, in an endemic setting, incomplete vaccination coverage can lead to an increase in the teratogeni...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Source Type: research
Amidst the fear surrounding Zika virus, remember that there are over 100,000 children born each year with birth defects caused by infection with rubella virus. The virus Rubella virus is a member of the Togaviridae family, which also includes chikungunya virus. The genome is a 9.7 kilobase, positive strand RNA enclosed in a capsid and surrounded by a membrane (illustrated; image from ViralZone). Transmission Humans are the only natural host and reservoir of rubella virus. The virus is transmitted from human to human by respiratory aerosols.  Upon entry into the upper respiratory...
Source: virology blog - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Basic virology Information birth defects congenital rubella syndrome microcephaly mmr vaccine placenta viral virus viruses Zika zika virus Source Type: blogs
Three reports have been published that together make a compelling case that Zika virus is causing microcephaly in Brazil. An epidemic of Zika virus infection began in Brazil in April 2015, and by the end of the year the virus had spread through 19 provinces, many in the northeastern part of the country. Six months after the start of the outbreak, there was a surge in the number of infants born with microcephaly. It was not known if most of the mothers had been infected with Zika virus, as results of serological tests, virus isolation, or PCR were not available. An initial report of 35 Brazilian infants with ...
Source: virology blog - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Basic virology Information flavivirus microcephaly mosquito next generation sequencing placenta pregnancy viral viruses Zika Source Type: blogs
In the country’s capital, Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff oversees one of the military operations against the Aedes Aegypti mosquito carried out at a national level in the last few days to curb the spread of the Zika virus. Credit: Roberto Stuckert Filho/PRBy Mario OsavaRIO DE JANEIRO, Feb 2 2016 (IPS)Brazil is deploying 220,000 troops to wage war against the Zika virus, in response to the alarm caused by the birth of thousands of children with abnormally small heads. But eradicating the Aedes aegypti mosquito requires battles on many fronts, including science and the pharmaceutical industry.The Zika virus, transm...
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: Global & Universal Authors: Tags: Development & Aid Editors' Choice Featured Headlines Health Latin America & the Caribbean Population Poverty & SDGs Regional Categories TerraViva United Nations Brazil cities Science and Technology Zika Virus Source Type: news
Abstract Epidemiological studies of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in Japan have been conducted since the first nationwide rubella epidemic of 1965-1969 and subsequent epidemics of 1975-1977, 1982, 1987-1988, and 1992-1993. Rubella was non-endemic in Japan before the 1975-1977 epidemic, and endemic thereafter. Japan started a selective rubella vaccination program for junior high school girls in 1977, and universal rubella vaccination of children of both sexes in 1989. No nationwide rubella epidemics have occurred since 1994. Only three children with CRS were reported in Japan before 1964; however, m...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
When the nation turned our eyes to watch the ball drop in Times Square on New Year's Eve, we saw actress and former Playboy Playmate Jenny McCarthy urging viewers to kiss her on our TV screens. Thousands of people did, and sent her pictures to prove it. That's the nature of being a celebrity, possessing the ability to influence other people's behavior, and therein lies its potential for abuse. The idea that vaccines cause autism has been found to be totally false by doctors and scientists, in the same way almost all sane observers agree global warming is manmade. But thanks to anti-vaccine misinformation spread by some...
Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
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