Research Articles Repurposing rotavirus vaccines for intratumoral immunotherapy can overcome resistance to immune checkpoint blockade

Although immune checkpoint–targeted therapies are currently revolutionizing cancer care, only a minority of patients develop durable objective responses to anti–PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4 therapy. Therefore, new therapeutic interventions are needed to increase the immunogenicity of tumors and overcome the resistance to these immunotherapies. Oncolytic properties of common viruses can be exploited for the priming of antitumor immunity, and such oncolytic viruses are currently in active clinical development in combination with immune checkpoint–targeted therapies. However, the routine implementation of these therapies is limited by their manufacturing constraints, the risk of exposure of clinical staff, and the ongoing regulations on genetically modified organisms. We sought to determine whether anti-infectious disease vaccines could be used as a commercially available source of immunostimulatory agents for cancer immunotherapy. We found that rotavirus vaccines have both immunostimulatory and oncolytic properties. In vitro, they can directly kill cancer cells with features of immunogenic cell death. In vivo, intratumoral rotavirus therapy has antitumor effects that are dependent on the immune system. In several immunocompetent murine tumor models, intratumoral rotavirus overcomes resistance to and synergizes with immune checkpoint–targeted therapy. Heat- and UV-inactivated rotavirus lost their oncolytic activity but kept their synergy with immune checkpoint...
Source: Science Translational Medicine - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: These clinical and experimental observations suggest that HEV induced IFN-λ3 as a host innate immune response, which may play a protective role against HEV. PMID: 31465972 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Cytokine - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research
CDC recommends general approaches to prevent a reduction in tuberculin skin testing capability resulting from the expected shortage of Aplisol.
Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report - Category: American Health Tags: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Influenza (Flu) Influenza Vaccination MMWR Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report Public Health Rotavirus Rotavirus Vaccination Skin Cancer Smoking Tobacco Use Cigarette Smoking Source Type: news
María Maximina B. Moreno-Altamirano1*, Simon E. Kolstoe2 and Francisco Javier Sánchez-García1* 1Laboratorio de Inmunorregulación, Departamento de Inmunología, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico City, Mexico 2School of Health Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom Over the last decade, there has been significant advances in the understanding of the cross-talk between metabolism and immune responses. It is now evident that immune cell effector function strongly depends on the metabolic pathway in w...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Jeanne K. DuShane1, Michael P. Wilczek1, Mason A. Crocker1 and Melissa S. Maginnis1,2* 1Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, The University of Maine, Orono, ME, United States 2Graduate School in Biomedical Sciences and Engineering, The University of Maine, Orono, ME, United States JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) is a ubiquitous human pathogen and the causative agent of a fatal demyelinating disease in severely immunocompromised individuals. Due to the lack of successful pharmacological interventions, the study of JCPyV infection strategies in a rapid and highly sensitive manner is critical for the characteri...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the care and use of laboratory animals, Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University. The protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, Hangzhou, China (SYXKzhe 2016-087). TABLE 1 Table 1. Composition and nutrient levels of the basal diet. Preparation of Aps and Gps The polysaccharide product had a purity of 80% and a molecular weight of 20,000–60,000. Aps was composed of hexanoic acid, glucose, fructose, rhamnose, arabinose, and galac...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Human papillomavirus (HPV) cause common warts, laryngeal papilloma and genital condylomata and might lead to development of cervical cancer. Lactoferrin (LF) is a member of the transferrin family, which has antiviral activity against HPV-16. LF is an important player in the defense against pathogenic microorganisms and has also been shown to have activity against several viruses including herpesvirus, adenovirus, rotavirus and poliovirus. Bovine LF has been reported to be a more potent inhibitor of HPV entry in compare to human LF. The goal of the present study is to formulate, evaluate and optimize transfersomal vesicles ...
Source: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
As president of Merck Vaccines, Dr. Mahmoud overcame doubts in developing vaccines against two threats to women and babies: HPV and rotavirus.
Source: NYT Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Mahmoud, Adel (1941-2018) Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination and Immunization Deaths (Obituaries) Gardasil (Vaccine) Cervical Cancer Merck & Company Inc Princeton University Rotaviruses Gerberding, Julie L Egypt Source Type: news
As president of Merck Vaccines, Dr. Mahmoud overcome doubts in developing vaccines against two threats to women and babies: HPV and rotavirus.
Source: NYT Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Mahmoud, Adel (1941-2018) Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination and Immunization Deaths (Obituaries) Gardasil (Vaccine) Cervical Cancer Merck & Company Inc Princeton University Rotaviruses Gerberding, Julie L Egypt Source Type: news
LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog - Emergency medicine and critical care medical education blog aka Tropical Travel Trouble 004 A medical student who has just returned from their elective in Nepal presents with 1 week of bloody diarrhoea. He has been in the lowlands and stayed with a family in the local village he was helping at. It started three days before he left and he decided to get home on the plane in the hope it would settle. He is now opening his bowels 10x a day with associated cramps, fevers and has started feeling dizzy. Questions: Q1. What is dyse...
Source: Life in the Fast Lane - Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Tags: Clinical Cases Tropical Medicine amoebic dysentery bacillary dysentery e.histolytica entamoeba histolytica shigellosis Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 6 January 2018 Source:Journal of Hospital Infection Author(s): T. Akhtar, J. Cargill, C. Gerrard, F. Shaw, N.A. Cunliffe, R.P.D. Cooke, B. Pizer We reviewed seven year's data to examine stool testing for rotavirus in patents treated on a regional Paediatric Oncology Unit before and after the introduction of UK-wide rotavirus immunisation in July 2013. The prevalence of rotavirus positivity has diminished since the introduction of rotavirus immunisation, with 21 of 416 positive samples between 2010 and 2012, but only one positive test out of 122 samples in 2015 and 2016. Based on these re...
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
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