Role of the lysyl oxidase enzyme family in cardiac function and disease

AbstractHeart diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality world-wide. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) and related LOX-like (LOXL) isoforms play a vital role in remodelling the extracellular matrix (ECM). The LOX family controls ECM formation by cross-linking collagen and elastin chains. LOX/LOXL proteins are copper-dependent amine oxidases that catalyse the oxidation of lysine, causing cross-linking between the lysine moieties of lysine-rich proteins. Dynamic changes in LOX and LOXL protein-expression occur in a variety of cardiac pathologies; these changes are believed to be central to the associated tissue-fibrosis. An awareness of the potential pathophysiological importance of LOX has led to the evaluation of interventions that target LOX/LOXL proteins for heart-disease therapy. The purposes of this review article are: (i) to summarize the basic biochemistry and enzyme function of LOX and LOXL proteins; (ii) to consider their tissue and species distribution; and (iii) to review the results of experimental studies of the roles of LOX and LOXL proteins in heart disease, addressing involvement in the mechanisms, pathophysiology and therapeutic responses based on observations in patient samples and relevant animal models. Therapeutic targeting of LOX family enzymes has shown promising results in animal models, but small-molecule approaches have been limited by non-specificity and off-target effects. Biological approaches show potential promise but are in their infancy. While the...
Source: Cardiovascular Research - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

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Authors: Bergland OU, Søraas CL, Larstorp ACK, Halvorsen LV, Hjørnholm U, Hoffman P, Høieggen A, Fadl Elmula FEM Abstract PURPOSE: The blood pressure (BP) lowering effect of renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) in treatment-resistant hypertension shows variation amongst the existing randomised studies. The long-term efficacy and safety of RDN require further investigation. For the first time, we report BP changes and safety up to 7 years after RDN, compared to drug adjustment in the randomised Oslo RDN study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with treatment-resistant hypertension, defined...
Source: Blood Pressure - Category: Hematology Tags: Blood Press Source Type: research
Authors: Zhang W, Xu JZ, Lu XH, Li H, Wang D, Wang JG Abstract PURPOSE: We hypothesise that dietary sodium intake interacts with serum uric acid to influence blood pressure (BP) in children and adolescents. In the present study, we investigated ambulatory BP in relation to hyperuricaemia, dietary sodium intake and their interaction in children and adolescents with hypertension. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  A total of 616 study participants were 10-24 years old and had primary hypertension diagnosed after admission in a specialised inpatient ward. Ambulatory BP monitoring was performed during hospitalisat...
Source: Blood Pressure - Category: Hematology Tags: Blood Press Source Type: research
Authors: Sabet Sarvestani F, Azarpira N Abstract Heart and cerebral infarctions, as two important ischemic diseases, lead to the death of tissues due to inadequate blood supply and high mortality worldwide. These statuses are started via blockage of vessels and depletion of oxygen and nutrients which affected these areas. After reperfusion and restoration of oxygen supply, more severe injury was mediated by multifaceted cascades of inflammation and oxidative stress. microRNAs (miRNAs) as the regulator of biological and pathological pathways can adjust these conditions by interaction with their targets. Also, miRNAs...
Source: Immunological Investigations - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Immunol Invest Source Type: research
Cupressus macrocarpa leaves for biomonitoring the environmental impact of an industrial complex: The case of Puchuncaví-Ventanas in Chile. Chemosphere. 2020 Dec;260:127521 Authors: Gorena T, Fadic X, Cereceda-Balic F Abstract The Punchuncaví Valley is one of the most polluted areas in central Chile affected by anthropogenic emissions from the Ventanas Industrial Complex (IC) where the most important industry is the copper smelter and refinery. In this context, this research aims were to assess the usefulness of the Cupressus macrocarpa as a biomonitor. The leaf samples were taken from fi...
Source: Chemosphere - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research
Abstract Competitive and non-competitive batch experiments were conducted on flax fibers to study Zn2+, Cu2+, and Pb2+ ions biosorption performance. Biosorption efficiency was dependent on contact time, pH, and biosorbent concentration. The results under competitive conditions were different from those obtained in non-competitive form. A high affinity of lead, with a selectivity sequence in general of Pb > Cu > Zn was observed. The biosorption data fitted very well the Langmuir model for lead in both types of solutions and for zinc and copper in the monometal form. The fit with the Freund...
Source: Chemosphere - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Neuro-ophthalmologic findings are mostly normal in patients with visual snow syndrome. Retinal or neurological diseases must be excluded as possible causes of visual snow. PMID: 33029971 [PubMed]
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: J Clin Neurol Source Type: research
Time limit: 0 Quiz-summary 0 of 20 questions completed Questions: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Information This test series requires login for attempting. You can login easily with your Facebook account (Use the CONNECT WITH icon on the upper part of right sidebar displaying t...
Source: Cardiophile MD - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: General Cardiology Source Type: blogs
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Source: Cardiophile MD - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Cardiology MCQ DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Source Type: blogs
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Source: Cardiophile MD - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Cardiology MCQ DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Featured Source Type: blogs
Please wait while the activity loads. If this activity does not load, try refreshing your browser. Also, this page requires javascript. Please visit using a browser with javascript enabled. If loading fails, click here to try again Click on the 'Start' button to begin the mock test. After answering all questions, click on the 'Get Results' button to display your score and the explanations. There is no time limit for this mock test. Start Congratulations - you have completed DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Mock Test 7. You scored %%SCORE%% out of %%TOTAL%%. Your performance has been rate...
Source: Cardiophile MD - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Cardiology MCQ DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Featured Source Type: blogs
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