Orexins as Novel Therapeutic Targets in Inflammatory and Neurodegenerative Diseases

Orexins [orexin-A (OXA) and orexin-B (OXB)] are two isoforms of neuropeptides produced by the hypothalamus. The main biological actions of orexins, focused on the central nervous system, are to control the sleep/wake process, appetite and feeding, energy homeostasis, drug addiction, and cognitive processes. These effects are mediated by two G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) subtypes named OX1R and OX2R. In accordance with the synergic and dynamic relationship between the nervous and immune systems, orexins also have neuroprotective and immuno-regulatory (i.e., anti-inflammatory) properties. The present review gathers recent data demonstrating that orexins may have a therapeutic potential in several pathologies with an immune component including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, narcolepsy, obesity, intestinal bowel diseases, septic shock, and cancers.
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

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Date: Tuesday, 12 17, 2019; Speaker: Dr. Erin Beck, NINDS; Dr. Kenneth Tyler, University of Colorado School of Medicine; Building: Building 10 (Clinical Center); Lipsett Auditorium; CME Credit
Source: NIH Calendar of Events - Category: American Health Source Type: events
Recent studies have highlighted the multidimensional effect of atopic dermatitis (AD) and urticaria. Patient burden for these conditions is largely driven by the intense itching, sleep disturbance, comorbidities, and mental health illness associated with these diseases.1-3 Immunologic, microbial, and epithelial interactions have been reported to play an important role in AD.4,5 Novel therapies and management approaches are targeting the mechanisms underlying AD and urticaria.6,7 The current issue of the Annals contains 3 outstanding reviews that update readers on the pathophysiology and evolving treatments for AD and chronic urticaria.
Source: Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
This study aims to describe the gender and age differences in the incidence and prevalence of dementia and AD in Taiwan. Methods: The data on dementia and AD were acquired from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 2004 to 2010. The sex and age-specific rates were standardized, and the differences of gender and age on dementia or AD were assessed using Poisson regression analysis. Results: Over seven years, the prevalence of dementia and AD significantly increased from 4.7 to 7.6 per hundred people (β = 0.0784, p
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
Abstract The pathogenesis and prognosis of glioblastoma (GBM) remain poorly understood. Mutual exclusivity analysis can distinguish driver genes and pathways from passenger ones. The purpose of this study was to identify mutually exclusive gene sets (MEGSs) that have prognostic value and to detect novel driver genes in GBM. The genomic alteration profile and clinical information were derived from The Cancer Genome Atlas, and the MEGSA method was used to identify the MEGS. Next, we performed survival analysis and constructed a risk prediction model for prognostic stratification. Leave-one-out cross-validation and p...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
Abstract Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is an available tumor biomarker mainly for detecting ovarian cancer. However, it is unknown whether it can be a novel indicator for diagnosis of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of serum HE4 as a novel biomarker for DKD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We enrolled 236 patients with T2DM and 82 healthy individuals. Serum HE4 was detected by ARCHITECT i2000 and compared between T2DM patients and healthy controls. The relationships between various variables and HE4 were analyzed by univariate or multivari...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
taf M Abstract A- and D-ring-modified luotonin-inspired heterocycles have been synthesized and were evaluated for their activity against the viability of four cancer cell lines in vitro, namely, MCF7, HCT116, JURKAT, and NCI-H460. The analysis of results indicated that two of the synthesized derivatives displayed good inhibition against the growth of the human colon cancer HCT116 cell line, with potencies lower than but in the same order of magnitude as camptothecin (CPT). These two luotonin analogues also showed an activity similar to that of the highly potent alkaloid CPT as inhibitors of topoisomerase I and als...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
Abstract Neurological diseases particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), stroke, and epilepsy are on the rise all around the world causing morbidity and mortality globally with a common symptom of gradual loss or impairment of motor behaviour. Striatum, which is a component of the basal ganglia, is involved in facilitating voluntary movement while the cerebellum is involved in the maintenance of balance and coordination of voluntary movements. Dopamine, serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glutamate, to name a few, interact in regulating the excitation and inhibition of motor neuro...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
Journal Name: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM) Issue: Ahead of print
Source: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine - Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that FXR regulates Aß-induced neuronal apoptosis, which may be dependent on the CREB/BDNF signaling pathway in vitro. PMID: 31812977 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Medical Science Monitor - Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The discrepancy between a clinical exam which is not indicative of thyrotoxicosis and markedly abnormal thyroid function tests should lead to a search for biotin intake, which can interfere with thyroid function tests. PMID: 31813616 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Revue de Medecine Interne - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Rev Med Interne Source Type: research
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