Combining alpha radiation-based brachytherapy with immunomodulators promotes complete tumor regression in mice via tumor-specific long-term immune response

AbstractDiffusing alpha-emitters radiation therapy (DaRT) is the only known method for treating solid tumors with highly destructive alpha radiation. More importantly, as a monotherapy, DaRT has been shown to induce a systemic antitumor immune response following tumor ablation. Here, immunomodulatory strategies to boost the antitumor immune response induced by DaRT, and the response specificity, were investigated in the colon cancer CT26 mouse model. Local treatment prior to DaRT,  with the TLR3 agonist poly I:C, was sufficient to inhibit tumor growth relative to poly I:C or DaRT alone. DaRT used in combination with the TLR9 agonist CpG, or with the TLR1/2 agonist XS15 retarded tumor growth and increased tumor-rejection rates, compared to DaRT alone, curing 41% and 20% of t he mice, respectively. DaRT in combination with CpG, the Treg inhibitor cyclophosphamide, and the MDSC inhibitor sildenafil, cured 51% of the animals, compared to only 6% and 0% cure when immunomodulation or DaRT was used alone, respectively. Challenge and Winn assays revealed that these high cure r ates involved a specific immunological memory against CT26 antigens. We suggest that DaRT acts in synergy with immunomodulation to induce a specific and systemic antitumor immune response. This strategy may serve as a safe and efficient method not only for tumor ablation, but also for in situ vaccin ation of cancer patients.
Source: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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