The Role of Adipogenic Progenitor Cells in Muscle Stem Cell Aging

The stem cells responsible for maintaining muscle tissue decline in function with age, becoming ever less active. This loss of function contributes to sarcopenia, the characteristic decline in muscle mass and strength that takes place with advancing age. Researchers here report on investigations of the role of adipogenic progenitor cells in the decline of muscle stem cell function. These progenitor cells are a necessary part of the muscle stem cell niche, but their behavior changes for the worse with advancing age, disrupting the balance of intracellular signaling needed for stem cell function. Declining stem cell function during aging leads to impaired tissue function and contributes to delayed tissue repair following damage. In adult skeletal muscle, loss of myofiber integrity caused by mechanical injuries or diseases are repaired by resident muscle stem cells (MuSCs), called satellite cells, which promptly exit from quiescence after disruption of muscle architecture to expand, differentiate, and drive tissue regeneration. The fate of MuSCs fundamentally depends on the "niche", their local environment, which is orchestrated by diverse cellular and acellular elements. Fibro/adipogenic progenitors (FAPs) constitute a population of interstitial mesenchymal cells in skeletal muscle which are devoid of myogenic potential, but support muscle stem cell commitment and can differentiate to the adipogenic or fibrotic lineages. A recent study demonstrated an ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

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Source: Circulation Journal - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Circ J Source Type: research
In conclusion, high-dose NR induces the onset of WAT dysfunction, which may in part explain the deterioration of metabolic health. Towards a Rigorous Definition of Cellular Senescence https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2019/11/towards-a-rigorous-definition-of-cellular-senescence/ The accumulation of lingering senescent cells is a significant cause of aging, disrupting tissue function and generating chronic inflammation throughout the body. Even while the first senolytic drugs capable of selectively destroying these cells already exist, and while a number of biotech companies are working on the productio...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Abstract Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have the ability to migrate to injury sites and facilitate tissue repair by promoting angiogenesis. However, the therapeutic effect of ADSCs from patients with diabetes is impaired due to oxidative stress. Given that diabetes is a group of metabolic disorders and mitochondria are a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), it is possible that mitochondrial ROS plays an important role in the induction of diabetic ADSC (dADSC) dysfunction. ADSCs isolated from diabetic mice were treated with mitoTEMPO, a mitochondrial ROS scavenger, or TEMPO, a universal ROS scavenger,...
Source: Cell Transplantation - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Transplant Source Type: research
Abstract Angiogenesis plays a central role in human physiology from reproduction and fetal development to wound healing and tissue repair/regeneration. Clinically relevant therapies are needed for promoting angiogenesis in order to supply oxygen and nutrients after transplantation, thus relieving the symptoms of ischemia. Increase in angiogenesis can lead to restoration of damaged tissues, thereby leading the way for successful tissue regeneration. Tissue regeneration is a broad field that has shown the convergence of various interdisciplinary fields, wherein living cells in conjugation with biomaterials have been...
Source: Current Stem Cell Research and Therapy - Category: Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Curr Stem Cell Res Ther Source Type: research
In this study, we hypothesized that moderately and chronically reducing ACh could attenuate the deleterious effects of aging on NMJs and skeletal muscles. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed NMJs and muscle fibers from heterozygous transgenic mice with reduced expression of the vesicular ACh transporter (VAChT), VKDHet mice, which present with approximately 30% less synaptic ACh compared to control mice. Because ACh is constitutively decreased in VKDHet, we first analyzed developing NMJs and muscle fibers. We found no obvious morphological or molecular differences between NMJs and muscle fibers of VKDHet and contro...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Exendin‑4 promotes osteogenic differentiation of adipose‑derived stem cells and facilitates bone repair. Mol Med Rep. 2019 Oct 23;: Authors: Deng B, Zhu W, Duan Y, Hu Y, Chen X, Song S, Yi Z, Song Y Abstract Inflammation‑related bone defects pose a heavy burden on patients and orthopedic surgeons. Although stem‑cell‑based bone repair has developed rapidly, it is of great significance to characterize bio‑active molecules that facilitate bone regeneration. It is reported that a glucagon‑like peptide 1 receptor agonist, exendin‑4, promoted bone regeneration mediated by the transplantation ...
Source: Molecular Medicine Reports - Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Med Rep Source Type: research
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Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that severe sepsis induces stable mixed-lineage leukemia 1-mediated epigenetic modifications in the bone marrow, which are passed to peripheral macrophages resulting in impaired macrophage function and deficient wound healing persisting long after sepsis recovery. PMID: 31644352 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research
This article has received a badge for *Open Materials* because it provided all relevant information to reproduce the study in the manuscript. The complete Open Science Disclosure form for this article can be found at the end of the article. More information about the Open Practices badges can be found athttps://cos.io/our-services/open-science-badges/.
Source: Journal of Neurochemistry - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Conclusion: This study unveiled the regulatory function and related mechanism of RNase L and implied the promising application of therapeutics targeting RNase L in lung cancer.
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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