Striatal dopamine D2 binding correlates with locus of control: Preliminary evidence from 11Craclopride Positron Emission Tomography

Publication date: Available online 20 October 2019Source: International Journal of PsychophysiologyAuthor(s): Eliana Vassena, Filip Van Opstal, Ingeborg Goethals, Tom VergutsAbstractThe ability to exert control has been widely investigated as a hallmark of adaptive behaviour. Dopamine is recognized as the key neuromodulator mediating various control-related processes. The neural mechanisms underlying the subjective perception of being in control, or Locus of Control (LOC) are however less clear. LOC indicates the subjective tendency to attribute environmental outcomes to one's actions (internal LOC) or instead to external incontrollable factors (external LOC). Here we hypothesized that dopamine levels also relate to LOC. Previous work shows that dopamine signaling mediates learning of action-outcome relationships, outcome predictability, and opportunity cost. Prominent theories propose dopamine dysregulation as the key pathogenetic mechanism in schizophrenia and depression. Critically, external LOC is a risk factor for schizophrenia and depression, and predicts increased vulnerability to stress. However, a direct link between LOC and dopamine levels in healthy control had not been demonstrated. The purpose of our study was to investigate this link. Using [11C]raclopride Positron Emission Tomography we tested the relationship between D2 receptor binding in the striatum and LOC (measured with the Rotter Locus of Control scale) in 15 healthy volunteers. Our results show a large ...
Source: International Journal of Psychophysiology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

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Conclusion: This is the first implementation of SocialMind, which is the first mindfulness-based social cognition training. It is well tolerated by participants with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and a further randomized controlled trial is proposed for people who have suffered their first episode of psychosis within the past 5 years.Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT03434405.IntroductionPeople suffering from psychosis frequently find it difficult to establish or maintain relationships with others or to engage in community activities (1, 2). These deficits are present even in high-risk ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusion: It seems to be feasible to combine different types of clinical characteristics with biomarkers in order to detect bipolarity of all depressive episodes. Neurotrophic factors of our interest presented its stable discriminant potentiality in unipolar and bipolar depression, deserving validation analysis in larger samples.IntroductionThe Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) separates the mood disorders into two sections: depressive and related disorders, and bipolar and related disorders. The new version of the diagnostic manual of bipolar disorders emphasizes more specific ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Rui Yan1, ShiWan Tao1, HaiYan Liu1, Yu Chen1, JiaBo Shi1, YuYin Yang1, RongXin Zhu1, ZhiJian Yao1,2* and Qing Lu3,4*1Department of Psychiatry, The Affiliated Brain Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China2Nanjing Brain Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China3School of Biological Sciences and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, China4Child Development and Learning Science, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education, Nanjing, ChinaBackground: Major depressive disorders often involve somatic symptoms and have been found to have fundamental differences from non-somatic depressi...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
 Even if we live with mental illness, ourselves, we can be frustrated when we don’t know how to help a friend or family member who’s dealing with it. We may find that coping skills that work for us may not work for someone else. Medications that work for us may not work for the other person. In this episode, Gabe and Michelle discuss how to help friends with mental illness, including the help available through caregivers, medication, and more.   SUBSCRIBE &REVIEW “And I wonder to myself, ‘Why do you tolerate this s**t?’” – Gabe Howard   Highlights From &lsq...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: A Bipolar, A Schizophrenic, and a Podcast Caregivers Depression Friends Source Type: blogs
Conclusion Currently available pharmacotherapies for PTSD are poorly effective on a substantial proportion of patients. Given this high rate of pharmacological unresponsiveness, further studies are needed to extend the knowledge of the basic mechanisms associated with the pathophysiology of this disorder. The findings discussed in this review suggest that DAergic dysfunction, especially genetic-dependent DAergic alteration, plays a prominent role in the pathophysiology of PTSD; as a consequence, drugs targeting the DAergic system might be therapeutically relevant. A better understanding of how and which DAergic dysfunctio...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusion and Future Perspectives Although interesting data have come from pharmacogenetics, neuroimaging and the interaction of both fields of study, few converging findings are available that describe the antipsychotic treatment response and resistance mechanisms in schizophrenia (DeLisi and Fleischhacker, 2016). Based on the available evidence, the results from both neuroimaging and pharmacogenetic/pharmacogenomic studies point to an overlap in the neurobiological vulnerability risk factors influencing the antipsychotic drug response in schizophrenia and the risk factors underlying schizophrenia itself. Currently for ...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
In conclusion, treatment outcomes in different domains seem to be linked to the client’s motivation to attend treatment and the feeling of being coerced into therapy, regardless of mandate (2). It has been argued that there is, potentially, an element of coercion in every clinical encounter (80) and the perception of coercion has a variety of determinants, many of which are dependent on the quality of relationship with the service provider (45). Therefore, reducing feelings of coercion might improve treatment outcomes, prevent disengagement from services, and ameliorate therapeutic relationships (5). Facilitating the...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusion It is clear that clinically, there is still much to be learnt about alexithymia and its relationship with a range of related phenomena. Firstly, is alexithymia a continuous and stable trait independent of psychological or somatic symptomology that is developed during childhood? Or is it instead a reactive state induced by trauma and distress at any age, which serves to defend against intense and upsetting emotions? This impacts on treatment options. For example, should we be focussing on early childhood interventions which target the child's emotional environment and parenting to encourage emotional exp...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusions: The findings from this exploratory study are consistent with the possibility that dialogue therapy may lead to improvements in symptoms and functioning compared to standard treatment in psychosis. Introduction Standard treatment (ST) for psychosis consists primarily of antipsychotics, hospitalization, social rehabilitation, and different types of supportive therapy (1–3). Antipsychotic drugs have only moderate effects on positive symptoms and no demonstrable effects on negative symptoms (4–6). Side effects are often prominent and might include a reduction in emotional expression, menstrual ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Discussion of the treatment potential, or usefulness of empathy inductions for therapeutic change, is presented. • Remaining empirical questions are presented. The “Standard” Empathy Definition vs. A Non-canonical Approach to Empathy Most often, the term empathy is used to refer to the vicarious sharing of another's pain or sorrow (1). This form of empathy has been described as empathic concern (2–4) because the empathizer “shares in” the negative emotional experience of the target. However, the main argument made here is that positive-valence forms of empathy exist and should ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
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