Striatal dopamine D2 binding correlates with locus of control: Preliminary evidence from 11Craclopride Positron Emission Tomography

Publication date: Available online 20 October 2019Source: International Journal of PsychophysiologyAuthor(s): Eliana Vassena, Filip Van Opstal, Ingeborg Goethals, Tom VergutsAbstractThe ability to exert control has been widely investigated as a hallmark of adaptive behaviour. Dopamine is recognized as the key neuromodulator mediating various control-related processes. The neural mechanisms underlying the subjective perception of being in control, or Locus of Control (LOC) are however less clear. LOC indicates the subjective tendency to attribute environmental outcomes to one's actions (internal LOC) or instead to external incontrollable factors (external LOC). Here we hypothesized that dopamine levels also relate to LOC. Previous work shows that dopamine signaling mediates learning of action-outcome relationships, outcome predictability, and opportunity cost. Prominent theories propose dopamine dysregulation as the key pathogenetic mechanism in schizophrenia and depression. Critically, external LOC is a risk factor for schizophrenia and depression, and predicts increased vulnerability to stress. However, a direct link between LOC and dopamine levels in healthy control had not been demonstrated. The purpose of our study was to investigate this link. Using [11C]raclopride Positron Emission Tomography we tested the relationship between D2 receptor binding in the striatum and LOC (measured with the Rotter Locus of Control scale) in 15 healthy volunteers. Our results show a large ...
Source: International Journal of Psychophysiology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

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Fight Aging! publishes news and commentary relevant to the goal of ending all age-related disease, to be achieved by bringing the mechanisms of aging under the control of modern medicine. This weekly newsletter is sent to thousands of interested subscribers. To subscribe or unsubscribe from the newsletter, please visit: https://www.fightaging.org/newsletter/ Longevity Industry Consulting Services Reason, the founder of Fight Aging! and Repair Biotechnologies, offers strategic consulting services to investors, entrepreneurs, and others interested in the longevity industry and its complexities. To find out m...
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Vascular aging is an important contribution to neurodegeneration. The brain is an energy-hungry organ, and reductions in blood flow with age have a negative impact on brain tissue. These reductions can occur for obvious reasons such as the weakening of the heart in cases of heart failure, but there are other, more subtle processes at work to reduce the delivery of nutrients to the brain, such as the progressive stiffening of blood vessels and reductions in capillary density. Researchers here note that greater excess fat tissue, as measured by body mass index, correlates with reduced blood flow in the brain. It is plausible...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
What exactly is psychosis? What happens in the brain of a person with schizophrenia who is hallucinating? Schizophrenic Rachel Star Withers shares her personal hallucinations and delusions and Dr. Joseph Goldberg, who specializes in researching what goes on in the brain when someone is experiencing psychosis, joins to break down how the brain functions during psychotic episodes. Host Rachel Star Withers, a diagnosed schizophrenic, and co-host Gabe Howard delve into these intense subjects in this episode of Inside Schizophrenia.  Highlights from “Psychosis in Schizophrenia” Episode [02:13]  Rachel, do...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Brain and Behavior Disorders General Inside Schizophrenia Mental Health and Wellness Active psychosis Delusions Delusions Hallucinations Living with Schizoprenia Mental Disorder Mental Illness Psychology psychotic Psychotic Break Source Type: blogs
Conclusion: This is the first implementation of SocialMind, which is the first mindfulness-based social cognition training. It is well tolerated by participants with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and a further randomized controlled trial is proposed for people who have suffered their first episode of psychosis within the past 5 years.Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT03434405.IntroductionPeople suffering from psychosis frequently find it difficult to establish or maintain relationships with others or to engage in community activities (1, 2). These deficits are present even in high-risk ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusion: It seems to be feasible to combine different types of clinical characteristics with biomarkers in order to detect bipolarity of all depressive episodes. Neurotrophic factors of our interest presented its stable discriminant potentiality in unipolar and bipolar depression, deserving validation analysis in larger samples.IntroductionThe Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) separates the mood disorders into two sections: depressive and related disorders, and bipolar and related disorders. The new version of the diagnostic manual of bipolar disorders emphasizes more specific ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Rui Yan1, ShiWan Tao1, HaiYan Liu1, Yu Chen1, JiaBo Shi1, YuYin Yang1, RongXin Zhu1, ZhiJian Yao1,2* and Qing Lu3,4*1Department of Psychiatry, The Affiliated Brain Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China2Nanjing Brain Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China3School of Biological Sciences and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, China4Child Development and Learning Science, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education, Nanjing, ChinaBackground: Major depressive disorders often involve somatic symptoms and have been found to have fundamental differences from non-somatic depressi...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
 Even if we live with mental illness, ourselves, we can be frustrated when we don’t know how to help a friend or family member who’s dealing with it. We may find that coping skills that work for us may not work for someone else. Medications that work for us may not work for the other person. In this episode, Gabe and Michelle discuss how to help friends with mental illness, including the help available through caregivers, medication, and more.   SUBSCRIBE &REVIEW “And I wonder to myself, ‘Why do you tolerate this s**t?’” – Gabe Howard   Highlights From &lsq...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: A Bipolar, A Schizophrenic, and a Podcast Caregivers Depression Friends Source Type: blogs
Conclusion Currently available pharmacotherapies for PTSD are poorly effective on a substantial proportion of patients. Given this high rate of pharmacological unresponsiveness, further studies are needed to extend the knowledge of the basic mechanisms associated with the pathophysiology of this disorder. The findings discussed in this review suggest that DAergic dysfunction, especially genetic-dependent DAergic alteration, plays a prominent role in the pathophysiology of PTSD; as a consequence, drugs targeting the DAergic system might be therapeutically relevant. A better understanding of how and which DAergic dysfunctio...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusion and Future Perspectives Although interesting data have come from pharmacogenetics, neuroimaging and the interaction of both fields of study, few converging findings are available that describe the antipsychotic treatment response and resistance mechanisms in schizophrenia (DeLisi and Fleischhacker, 2016). Based on the available evidence, the results from both neuroimaging and pharmacogenetic/pharmacogenomic studies point to an overlap in the neurobiological vulnerability risk factors influencing the antipsychotic drug response in schizophrenia and the risk factors underlying schizophrenia itself. Currently for ...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
In conclusion, treatment outcomes in different domains seem to be linked to the client’s motivation to attend treatment and the feeling of being coerced into therapy, regardless of mandate (2). It has been argued that there is, potentially, an element of coercion in every clinical encounter (80) and the perception of coercion has a variety of determinants, many of which are dependent on the quality of relationship with the service provider (45). Therefore, reducing feelings of coercion might improve treatment outcomes, prevent disengagement from services, and ameliorate therapeutic relationships (5). Facilitating the...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
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