Patterns of default mode network in temporal lobe epilepsy with and without hippocampal sclerosis

This article is part of the Special Issue “NEWroscience 2018”
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Related Links:

Pharmacological treatment with antiepileptic medications (AEDs) in epilepsy is associated with a variety of neurocognitive side effects. However, the mechanisms underlying these side effects, and why certain brain anatomies are more affected still remain poorly understood. Advanced functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) methods, such as pharmaco-fMRI, can investigate medication-related effects on brain activities using task and resting state fMRI and showing reproducible activation and deactivation patterns. This methodological approach has been used successfully to complement neuropsychological studies of AEDs. Here...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 November 2019Source: Epilepsy &BehaviorAuthor(s): Kristie Bauman, Orrin Devinsky, Anli A. LiuAbstractCareful study of the clinical outcomes of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) surgery has greatly advanced our knowledge of the neuroanatomy of human memory. After early cases resulted in profound amnesia, the critical role of the hippocampus and associated medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures to declarative memory became evident. Surgical approaches quickly changed to become unilateral and later, to be more precise, potentially reducing cognitive morbidity. Neuropsychological studies foll...
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Abstract Careful study of the clinical outcomes of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) surgery has greatly advanced our knowledge of the neuroanatomy of human memory. After early cases resulted in profound amnesia, the critical role of the hippocampus and associated medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures to declarative memory became evident. Surgical approaches quickly changed to become unilateral and later, to be more precise, potentially reducing cognitive morbidity. Neuropsychological studies following unilateral temporal lobe resection (TLR) have challenged early models, which simplified the lateralization of verbal a...
Source: Epilepsy and Behaviour - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Epilepsy Behav Source Type: research
ConclusionsTemporal lobe epilepsy does not affect nonmemory visuospatial functions but significantly impairs visuosopatial memory and learning. This pattern is independent of TLE laterality, in keeping with a modality-specific memory model. On the contrary, the type of temporal lobe lesion is relevant to the severity of impairment.
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
ConclusionSurgical management of these cases have been proven to be a safe and effective alternative but is currently greatly underutilized. In our literature review, we present the first published case of epilepsy surgery in the English-speaking Caribbean for temporal lobe epilepsy.
Source: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Temporal lobe epilepsy does not affect nonmemory visuospatial functions but significantly impairs visuosopatial memory and learning. This pattern is independent of TLE laterality, in keeping with a modality-specific memory model. On the contrary, the type of temporal lobe lesion is relevant to the severity of impairment. PMID: 31706170 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Epilepsy and Behaviour - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Epilepsy Behav Source Type: research
ConclusionIncreased connectivity contralateral to seizure onset and epilepsy network spread in the bitemporal lobes correlated with lower measures of executive functioning and verbal memory. Epilepsy network localization to the bitemporal lobes, in particular, the contralateral temporal lobe, is associated with higher rates of seizure recurrence. These findings may reflect network-level disruption that has infiltrated the contralateral hemisphere and the bitemporal lobes contributing to impaired cognition and relatively worse surgical outcomes. Further identification of network parameters that predict patient outcomes may ...
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusion: The patient's psychiatric symptoms were most likely caused by anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. Her polymorphic psychotic symptoms first occurred after she had received a Tdap-IPV booster vaccination. Although the vaccination cannot have caused the initial antibody formation since IgG serum antibodies were detected only 3 days after administration of the vaccine, the vaccine may have exerted immunomodulatory effects. MRI, EEG, and CSF findings were non-specific; however, FDG-PET identified brain involvement consistent with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. This case shows the importance of implementing a multimod...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Increased connectivity contralateral to seizure onset and epilepsy network spread in the bitemporal lobes correlated with lower measures of executive functioning and verbal memory. Epilepsy network localization to the bitemporal lobes, in particular, the contralateral temporal lobe, is associated with higher rates of seizure recurrence. These findings may reflect network-level disruption that has infiltrated the contralateral hemisphere and the bitemporal lobes contributing to impaired cognition and relatively worse surgical outcomes. Further identification of network parameters that predict patient outcomes ma...
Source: Epilepsy and Behaviour - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Epilepsy Behav Source Type: research
ConclusionsPatients with nonlesional GS have a more favorable outcome with better drug response, less need of polytherapy, and good long-term prognosis, both in terms of seizure control and EEG findings.
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
More News: Brain | Epilepsy | MRI Scan | Neurology | Statistics | Study