The role of cell signaling in the crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis in the regulation of tumor cell survival in response to sorafenib and neratinib

Publication date: Available online 20 October 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Laurence A. Booth, Jane L. Roberts, Paul DentAbstractThe molecular mechanisms by which tumor cells survive or die following therapeutic interventions are complex. There are three broadly defined categories of cell death processes: apoptosis (Type I), autophagic cell death (Type II), and necrosis (Type III). In hematopoietic tumor cells, the majority of toxic stimuli cause these cells to undergo a death process called apoptosis; apoptosis specifically involves the cleavage of DNA into large defined pieces and their subsequent localization in vesicles. Thus, ‘pure’ apoptosis largely lacks inflammatory potential. In carcinomas, however, the mechanisms by which tumor cells ultimately die are considerably more complex. Although the machinery of apoptosis is engaged by toxic stimuli, other processes such as autophagy (“self-eating”) and replicative cell death can lead to observations that do not simplistically correspond to any of the individual Type I-III formalized death categories. The ‘hybrid’ forms of cell death observed in carcinoma cells result in cellular materials being released into the extracellular space without packaging, which promotes inflammation, potentially leading to the accelerated re-growth of surviving tumor cells by macrophages. Drugs as single agents or in combinations can simultaneously initiate signaling via both apoptotic and ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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