Polymicrogyria : MRI Teaching Case

Discussion -Polymicrogyria is one of the most common malformations of cortical developmentin which the process of normal cerebral cortical development is disturbed late in the stage of neuronal migration or early in the stage of cortical organization, thus considered a disorder of neuronal organization.1. Causes - Congenital infection (particularly cytomegalovirus infection).              - Localized or diffuse in utero ischemia.              - Mutations.2. Clinical profile - ranging from hemiparesis or partial epilepsy to developmental delay, quadriparesis, medically refractory, intractable epilepsy.3. Associations – can be isolated malformation or it may be associated with other brain malformations like corpus callosum agenesis and hypogenesis, cerebellar hypoplasia, periventricular nodular heterotopias and subcortical heterotopias.4. The imaging appearance of polymicrogyria is variable which can be due to-    imaging factors (amount of gray matter–white matter contrast, thickness of the slices).-    the stage of maturity/ myelination of the brain at the time of the imaging study.-    the type of PMG.4a. Types of polymicrogyria -- Multiple small delicate gyri.- Thick and irregularly bumpy or be paradoxically smooth because the outer cortical (molecular) la...
Source: Sumer's Radiology Site - Category: Radiology Authors: Source Type: blogs

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Authors: Albert DVF, Das RR, Acharya JN, Lee JW, Pollard JR, Punia V, Keller JA, Husain AM Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the delivery of care to people with epilepsy (PWE) in multiple ways including limitations on in-person contact and restrictions on neurophysiological procedures. To better study the effect of the pandemic on PWE, members of the American Epilepsy Society were surveyed between April 30 and June 14, 2020. There were 366 initial responses (9% response rate) and 337 respondents remained for analysis after screening out noncompleters and those not directly involved with clinical care; the...
Source: Epilepsy Currents - Category: Neurology Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 September 2020Source: SeizureAuthor(s): Chaturbhuj Rathore, Sanjay Prakash, Prayag Makwana
Source: Seizure - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 September 2020Source: SeizureAuthor(s): Ana Letícia F. Caprara, Jamir P. Rissardo, Martim T.B. Leite, Juliana O.F. Silveira, Paulo Gilberto M. Jauris, Josi Arend, Aline Kegler, Luiz Fernando F. Royes, Michele R. Fighera
Source: Seizure - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Mitochondrial disorders may present from birth to adulthood and are characterized by dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain due to pathogenic variants in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or nuclear DNA, with an estimated incidence of 1/5000 1. Mitochondrial disorders have a broad phenotypic spectrum and may fall into one of several classic phenotypic presentations (e.g., mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes: MELAS; Leber hereditary optic neuropathy: LHON; myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fibers: MERRF, Kearns-Sayre syndrome: KSS, among others) or may present with variable sympto...
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Editorials Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The presence of RV, especially arteritis, is highly suggestive of identifiable etiology. Distinctive clinical patterns help differentiation of infectious versus noninfectious causes. PMID: 32940544 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Ocul Immunol Inflamm Source Type: research
Molecules, Vol. 25, Pages 4306: Adenosine Receptor Ligands: Coumarin–Chalcone Hybrids as Modulating Agents on the Activity of hARs Molecules doi: 10.3390/molecules25184306 Authors: Vazquez-Rodriguez Vilar Kachler Klotz Uriarte Borges Matos Adenosine receptors (ARs) play an important role in neurological and psychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy and schizophrenia. The different subtypes of ARs and the knowledge on their densities and status are important for understanding the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of diseases and...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
ConclusionOutcome studies directly comparing LEV and BRV are needed to define the clinical utility of the response with BRV, which was several minutes faster than that with LEV.Clinical trialsClinTrials.gov Identifier  = NCT03580707; registered 07-09-18
Source: CNS Drugs - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
ConclusionsAbsolute CD3+ T cell counts below 50% of age-adjusted normal values may be associated with higher odds of autoimmunity and/or asthma in patients with DiGeorge syndrome and be potentially useful to identify higher-risk patients.
Source: Journal of Clinical Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
This study assessed the association between early initiation of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) as first-line therapy (1L cohort) or as first adjunctive regimen to either levetiracetam (LEV) or lamotrigine (LTG) (add-on cohort), and healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) and charges among adults with treated focal seizures (FS).MethodsThis retrospective, longitudinal cohort analysis used Symphony Health ’s Integrated Dataverse (IDV®) claims data to identify patients aged ≥ 18 years with a diagnosis of FS who had a new prescription for ESL between April 2015 and June 2018. Baseline was the 90-d...
Source: Neurology and Therapy - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
ConclusionEdema is regularly found in patients with epilepsy classified to have died from SUDEP. We argue that seizures preceding SUDEP may in certain cases elicit acute edema which may represent an additional contributing factor in the cascade of events leading to sudden death of patients with epilepsy. Furthermore, we hypothesize that mild edema may especially progress to severe edema in patients with sodium channel mutations which may represent an important mechanism to investigate in the context of understanding the significantly elevated risk of SUDEP in patients with SCN1A mutations.
Source: Brain and Behavior - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research
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