Age- and sex-related changes in the severity of physical and psychological dependence in morphine-dependent rats

Publication date: Available online 19 October 2019Source: Pharmacology Biochemistry and BehaviorAuthor(s): Javad Mohammadian, Hossein Miladi-GorjiAbstractGender- and age-dependent effects on the severity of morphine dependence are still controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of age and sex on the severity of physical and psychological dependence in morphine-dependent rats. The young/aged male and female Wistar rats were chronically treated with bi-daily doses (10 mg/kg, at 12 h intervals) of morphine for 14 days. Then, rats were tested for the severity of physical dependence on morphine (spontaneous withdrawal signs), anxiety-like (the elevated plus maze), depressive-like (sucrose preference test) and grooming behaviors after spontaneous morphine withdrawal. We found that the morphine withdrawal signs decreased after 3 and 7 days of withdrawal in female and male rats respectively, while there was no significant difference in overall dependence severity between the two sexes or ages. Also, we found that the withdrawal of morphine led to increased anxiety, depression and obsessive-compulsive behavior in the D (dependent)/Adult male and female rats. Also, the D/aged female and male rats exhibited a reduction in depressive-like behavior than the D/Adult rats. Moreover, the D/female rats exhibited a decreased obsessive-compulsive behavior in both age groups than male rats. We conclude that age has no effect on the duration of withdrawal from mo...
Source: Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

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Conclusion: KY shows promise as an add-on option for OCD patients unresponsive to first line therapies. Future studies will establish KY’s relative efficacy compared to Exposure and Response Prevention and/or medications, and the most effective treatment schedule.Clinical Trial Registration:www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT01833442.
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
AbstractLittle is known about the role of mindfulness and self-compassion in obsessive-compulsive disorder. This cross-sectional study examined associations of mindfulness and self-compassion with obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms and with the obsessive beliefs and low distress tolerance thought to maintain them. Samples of treatment-seeking adults (N  =  1871) and non-treatment-seeking adults (N  =  540) completed mindfulness, self-compassion, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety, depression, obsessive beliefs and distress tolerance questionnaires. Participants with clinically significan...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 5 November 2019Source: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological PsychiatryAuthor(s): Fenghua Li, Madeeha Nasir, Baris Olten, Michael H. BlochAbstractBackgroundMinimizing dropouts across antidepressant, placebo-controlled trials remains a major opportunity to improve the efficiency of trials. This meta-analysis investigated placebo dropout rate and its predictors in second generation antidepressant (SGA) for anxiety, depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).MethodsA random-effects meta-analysis was performed to examine placebo group dropout rate in SGA trials for depre...
Source: Progress in Neuro Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
This study shows that agonism of 5-HT2AR reduces repetitive behavioral patterns, supporting the theory that this is a potential new treatment approach to disorders of cognitive or behavioral inflexibility. PMID: 31693871 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Neuropharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Neuropharmacology Source Type: research
Abstract Intolerance of uncertainty is a dispositional trait associated with a range of psychological disorders, but the influence of methodological factors on theses associations remains unknown. The first aim of this meta-analysis was to quantify the strengths of the association between IU and symptoms of generalised anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, depression, and eating disorders. The second aim was to assess the influence of methodological factors on these relationships, including clinical (vs. non-clinical) status, age group, sex, IU measu...
Source: Clinical Psychology Review - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Clin Psychol Rev Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: These five SCL-90-R abbreviated forms show high convergent validity with the full version. In patients undergoing investigation for seizure-related disorders, the Brief Symptom Inventory full form (BSI) or short form (BSI-18) is most appropriate where screening for both depression and anxiety is required. The SCL-K-9 is appropriate when only a single measure of global psychological distress is required. None of the instruments were able to detect psychotic or obsessive-compulsive symptoms with great accuracy. Caution should be exercised when making direct comparisons across the different forms. PMID: 3166...
Source: Epilepsy and Behaviour - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Epilepsy Behav Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 October 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Wanting Liu, Jun Gan, Jie Fan, Hong Zheng, Sihui Li, Raymond C.K. Chan, Changlian Tan, Xiongzhao ZhuAbstractPoor insight in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with several adverse clinical outcomes. However, the neurobiological basis of this insight deficit is not clearly understood. The present study thus aimed to investigate associations of cortical thickness, cortical surface area and subcortical volumes with insight in a sample of drug-naïve adults with OCD. Forty-seven OCD patients and 42 healthy controls (HCs)...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Authors: Pierce M, Hope HF, Kolade A, Gellatly J, Osam CS, Perchard R, Kosidou K, Dalman C, Morgan V, Di Prinzio P, Abel KM Abstract BACKGROUND: Children of parents with mental disorder face multiple challenges. AIMS: To summarise evidence about parental mental disorder and child physical health. METHOD: We searched seven databases for cohort or case-control studies quantifying associations between parental mental disorders (substance use, psychotic, mood, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, post-traumatic stress and eating) and offspring physical health. Studies were excluded if: they reported perinatal outcomes only (
Source: The British Journal of Psychiatry for Mental Science - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Br J Psychiatry Source Type: research
This report therefore uses quality assurance data looking into whether sensory processing sensitivity (SPS) affects treatment outcome among patients with OCD. SPS is a personality trait regarding heightened levels of emotional reactivity and deeper cognitive processing of emotional stimuli. Patients received concentrated exposure treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). They were assessed with one of the most widely used questionnaires for measuring SPS, the Highly Sensitive Person Scale (HSPS). Analyses tested whether HSPS scores at pre-treatment affected treatment outcome, and if sensitivity changed from pre-to...
Source: Journal of Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Are you always in control and always perfectly put together? Are you professionally successful, a great friend, and always showing a happy face to the world?  But what about on the inside? Is there something in the background or in the past that you don’t talk about?  Do you feel disconnected, like no one knows the “real” you? Deep down do you just know something is wrong? Well, you might have “perfectly hidden depression.” Today Gabe speaks with Dr. Margaret Rutherford who has done extensive work on the relationship between perfectionism and depression.  Dr. Rutherford tells u...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Brain and Behavior Depression General Happiness Interview LifeHelper Mental Health and Wellness Perfectionism Personality Podcast Psychiatry Psychology Research Self-Esteem Self-Help The Psych Central Show Trauma Source Type: blogs
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