Intranasal insulin treatment modulates the neurotropic, inflammatory, and oxidant mechanisms in the cortex and hippocampus in a low-grade inflammation model

Publication date: Available online 19 October 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): Kellen Ugioni Simon, Elias Wiggers Neto, Natalia dos Santos Tramontin, Paula Bortoluzzi Canteiro, Barbara da Costa Pereira, Rubya Pereira Zaccaron, Paulo Cesar Lock Silveira, Alexandre Pastoris MullerAbstractThe inflammatory process plays a critical role in the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Insulin is used in preclinical and clinical studies of neurological disorders. Its intranasal (IN) administration directly in the brain allows for its peripheral metabolic effects to be avoided. Swiss male mice were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (0.1 mg/kg) to induce low-grade inflammation. IN insulin treatment was initiated 4 h later at a dose of 1.7 IU once daily for 5 days. LPS induced cognitive deficits, which the IN insulin treatment reversed. LPS significantly decreased, whereas IN insulin significantly increased the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor-β in the cortex. In the hippocampus, IN insulin significantly decreased the BDNF level. LPS significantly increased the interleukin (IL)-6 levels in the cortex, while IN Insulin significantly decreased its levels in the hippocampus. The tumor necrosis factor-α levels were significantly decreased by IN insulin both in the cortex and hippocampus. Moreover, IN insulin significantly increased the IL-10 levels in the cortex. The levels of oxidative and nitrosative stress were sign...
Source: Peptides - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

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AbstractPediatric brain tumors are the leading cause of cancer-related death in children. Recent advances in sequencing techniques, and collaborative efforts to encode the mutational landscape of various tumor subtypes, have resulted in the identification of recurrent mutations that may present as actionable targets in these tumors. A number of molecularly targeted agents are approved or in development for the treatment of various tumor types in adult patients. Similarly, these agents are increasingly being incorporated into pediatric clinical trials, allowing for a targeted approach to treatment. However, due to the genet...
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In this study, we aimed to evaluate a novel approach for non-invasively predicting IDH status from conventional MRI via connectomics, a whole-brain network-based technique. We retrospectively extracted 93 connectome features from the preoperative, T1-weighted MRI data of 234 adult patients (148 IDH mutated) and evaluated the performance of four common machine learning models to predict IDH genotype. Results: Area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operator characteristic were 0.76 to 0.94 with random forest (RF) showing significantly higher performance (p
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 November 2019Source: Brain, Behavior, and ImmunityAuthor(s): Mona Moieni, Michael R. Irwin, Teresa E. Seeman, Theodore F. Robles, Matthew D. Lieberman, Elizabeth C. Breen, Stephanie Okimoto, Clara Lengacher, Jesusa M. G. Arevalo, Richard Olmstead, Steven W. Cole, Naomi I. EisenbergerAbstractGenerativity, or concern for and contribution to the well-being of younger generations, plays an important role in successful aging. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel, writing-based intervention to increase feelings of generativity and test the effect of this intervention on well-bein...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Studies in cell and animal models reveal insights into cancer cells ’ vulnerability that could lead to new strategies against brain cancers.
Source: National Institutes of Health (NIH) News Releases - Category: American Health Source Type: news
Some of the most common symptoms experienced by cancer patients are memory problems, difficulties with multitasking, and reduced attention and concentration. Historically, cancer patients with these symptoms were often diagnosed with depression. Research over the past decade has revealed that many cancer patients experience such symptoms as a consequence of specific damage to the brain caused by either their tumor or their treatment. While radiation to the brain has long been linked to causing cognitive difficulties, the effects of chemotherapy on brain structure and function have only recently been discovered. We now know...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Brain and cognitive health Cancer Memory Radiation Source Type: blogs
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Authors: Xu CH, Xiao LM, Zeng EM, Chen LK, Zheng SY, Li DH, Liu Y Abstract Gliomas are aggressive type of brain tumors and cause significant human mortality world over. The frequent relapses, development of drug resistance, the adverse effects of the chemotherapy and dearth of the therapeutic targets form the major hurdles in glioma treatment. Several studies suggest that microRNAs (miRs) are involved in the development and progression of different cancers. Herein, the therapeutic potential of miR-181 was explored in human glioma cells. The results showed that miR-181 is significantly downregulated in human glioma ...
Source: American Journal of Translational Research - Category: Research Tags: Am J Transl Res Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Altogether, the present study suggested that XIST is required to maintain VEGF signaling expression in HBMEC under hypoxia condition and plays a vital role in hypoxia-induced angiogenesis via miR-485-3p/SOX7 axis. PMID: 31737200 [PubMed]
Source: American Journal of Translational Research - Category: Research Tags: Am J Transl Res Source Type: research
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Source: American Journal of Translational Research - Category: Research Tags: Am J Transl Res Source Type: research
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