How to dissect the plasticity of antigen specific immune response: A tissue perspective.

How to dissect the plasticity of antigen specific immune response: A tissue perspective. Clin Exp Immunol. 2019 Oct 18;: Authors: Amodio D, Santilli V, Zangari P, Cotugno N, Manno EC, Rocca S, Rossi P, Cancrini C, Finocchi A, Chassiakos A, Petrovas C, Palma P Abstract Generation of antigen-specific humoral responses following vaccination or infection requires the maturation and function of highly specialized immune cells in secondary lymphoid organs (SLO), such as lymph nodes or tonsils. Factors that orchestrate the dynamics of these cells is still poorly understood. Nowadays, experimental approaches that enable for detailed description of the function of the immune system in SLO have been mostly developed and optimized in animal models. On the other hand, methodological approaches in humans are mainly based on the use of blood associated material because of the challenging access to tissues. Indeed, only few studies in humans were able to provide a discrete description of the complex network of cytokines, chemokines and lymphocytes acting in tissues after antigenic challenge. Furthermore, even less data are currently available on the interaction occurring within the complex micro architecture of the SLO. These information are crucial in order to design special vaccination strategies especially for patients affected by chronic and immune compromising medical conditions who are under vaccinated or that poorly respond to immunizations Analysis of immune ce...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

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kh Belsham Rasmussen Vaccines against classical swine fever have proven very effective in protecting pigs from this deadly disease. However, little is known about how vaccination impacts the selective pressures acting on the classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Here we use high-throughput sequencing of viral genomes to investigate evolutionary changes in virus populations following the challenge of naïve and vaccinated pigs with the highly virulent CSFV strain “Koslov”. The challenge inoculum contained an ensemble of closely related viral sequences, with three major haplotypes being pr...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 30 August 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Wenjie Gong, Junhui Li, Zunbao Wang, Jiumeng Sun, Shijiang Mi, Jialun Xu, Jian Cao, Yuzhen Hou, Danyang Wang, Xinliang Huo, Yanjun Sun, Pengjiang Wang, Ke Yuan, Yangyi Gao, Xubin Zhou, Sun He, Changchun TuAbstractClassical swine fever (CSF) still threatens the swine industry in China, with genotype 2 isolates of CSFV dominating the epizootics. In 2018 the first E2 subunit marker vaccine against CSFV (Tian Wen Jing, TWJ-E2®), containing a baculovirus-expressed E2 glycoprotein of a genotype 1.1 vaccine strain, was officially licens...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
In this study, we compared the response of pigs vaccinated with the C strain to non-vaccinated pigs both challenged with a pathogenic strain of CSFV. Analysis of transcriptomic data from the tonsils of these animals during the early stages after vaccination and challenge reveals a set of regulated genes that appear throughout the analysis. Many of these are linked to the ISG15 antiviral pathway suggesting it plays a key role in the rapid and early protection conferred by C strain vaccination.
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In conclusion, the mouse pharyngeal colonization model is an affordable and accessible experimental system that allows a broader group of research groups to test the importance of their findings in an in vivo model. There is a great deal of overlap between the bacterial and immune factors found to be important in human and murine pharyngeal colonization. Although MHC-II humanized mice could prove useful in answering certain questions, the use of inbred mouse lines appears to be sufficient for evaluation of most questions, both related to bacterial factors and the host immune response. However, when promising treatments or ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Sean P. Saunders1, Erica G. M. Ma1,2, Carlos J. Aranda1 and Maria A. Curotto de Lafaille1,3* 1Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Laboratory of Allergy and Inflammation, Department of Medicine, New York University, New York, NY, United States 2Sackler Institute of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, New York University, New York, NY, United States 3Department of Cell Biology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States The long-term effectiveness of antibody responses relies on the development of humoral immune memory. Humoral immunity is maintained by long-lived plasma ce...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Jean-Philippe Auger, Anaïs-Christelle Boa, Mariela Segura and Marcelo Gottschalk* Research Group on Infectious Diseases in Production Animals (GREMIP) and Swine and Poultry Infectious Disease Research Center (CRIPA), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC, Canada Streptococcus suis is an important porcine bacterial pathogen and a zoonotic agent causing a variety of pathologies including sudden death, septic shock, and meningitis. Though serotype 2 is the most studied serotype due to its presence worldwide, serotype 9 is responsible for the greatest number of porcine cases...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 April 2019Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): S. Jimbo, P.J. Griebel, K. Lai, L.A. Babiuk, G. MutwiriAbstractRegulatory B cells that produce IL-10 are now recognized as an important component of the immune system. We previously confirmed that IL-10 secreting CD21+ regulatory B cells (Breg cells) were present in ovine jejunal Peyer’s patches (JPP) and this IL-10 production suppressed IL-12 and IFN-γ secretion. It is not known, however, whether ovine Breg cells are restricted to JPP or are present in other lymphoid tissues. Therefore, CD21+ B cells wer...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
In this study it was assumed that there was no immunity following resolution of natural infection. The modeling demonstrated that a vaccine of moderate efficacy could have a significant impact on the prevalence of gonorrhea if strategically implemented (23). While encouraging it does, of course, depend on the availability of a vaccine. From Ecological Data to Evidence The epidemiological evidence from Cuba, Brazil, and New Zealand demonstrates that N. meningitidis OMV vaccines are possibly able to provide some broader protection against meningococcal disease (17, 24), particularly in older children and adults (25). These...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
ard Nicolas Rose Olivier Bourry In Europe, modified live vaccines (MLV) are commonly used to control porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. However, they have been associated with safety issues such as reversion to virulence induced by mutation and/or recombination. On a French pig farm, we identified a field recombinant strain derived from two PRRSV-1 MLV (MLV1). As a result, we aimed to evaluate its clinical, virological, and transmission parameters in comparison with both parental strains. Three groups with six pigs in each were inoculated with either one of the two MLV1s or with ...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 November 2018Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): Sara Prims, Ben Jurgens, Charlotte Vanden Hole, Steven Van Cruchten, Chris Van Ginneken, Christophe CasteleynAbstractSelection for prolificacy in modern pig farming has resulted in increasing litter sizes. Since rearing large litters is challenging, artificial rearing of piglets with a milk replacer is an alternative strategy. It is hypothesized that the development of the piglets’ mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT) is affected by these artificial conditions. Therefore, the stereologically estimated v...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
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