The Potassium Channel Kv1.5 Expression Alters During Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

The Potassium Channel Kv1.5 Expression Alters During Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis. Neurochem Res. 2019 Oct 17;: Authors: Bozic I, Savic D, Milosevic A, Janjic M, Laketa D, Tesovic K, Bjelobaba I, Jakovljevic M, Nedeljkovic N, Pekovic S, Lavrnja I Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory, neurodegenerative disease with an autoimmune component. It was suggested that potassium channels, which are involved in crucial biological functions may have a role in different diseases, including MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). It was shown that voltage-gated potassium channels Kv1.5 are responsible for fine-tuning in the immune physiology and influence proliferation and differentiation in microglia and astrocytes. Here, we explored the cellular distribution of the Kv1.5 channel, together with its transcript and protein expression in the male rat spinal cord during different stages of EAE. Our results reveal a decrease of Kv1.5 transcript and protein level at the peak of disease, where massive infiltration of myeloid cells occurs, together with reactive astrogliosis and demyelination. Also, we revealed that the presence of this channel is not found in infiltrating macrophages/microglia during EAE. It is interesting to note that Kv1.5 channel is expressed only in resting microglia in the naïve animals. Predominant expression of Kv1.5 channel was found in the astrocytes in all experi...
Source: Neurochemical Research - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

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ConclusionFurther studies are needed to evaluate the molecular mechanisms involved in the behaviour of MLT in EAE, and to quantify other cytokines in different biological media in order for MLT to be considered an anti-inflammatory agent capable of regulating MS.ResumenIntroducciónLa esclerosis múltiple (EM) es una enfermedad crónica desmielinizante autoinmune del sistema nervioso central (SNC) que produce neuroinflamación, un modelo es la encefalitis autoinmune experimental (EAE). La EM ha sido tratada con interferón beta (IFN-beta) y acetato de glatiramero (AG). Se ha descrito que la me...
Source: Neurologia - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
AbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease of the myelin sheath, and melatonin is a powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. The present study evaluated the protective effect of melatonin on demyelination and remyelination processes in male and female mice with experimental MS induced by cuprizone. This model of experimental MS in mice is widely used because cuprizone administration causes an artificial demyelination reaction through oligodendrocyte apoptosis, while its withdrawal leads to spontaneous remyelination. Male and female SWR/J mice (n = 78) were divided into...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Authors: Bao Z, Hao J, Li Y, Feng F Abstract Microglia were once thought to serve a pathogenic role in demyelinating diseases, particularly in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, it has recently been shown that in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS, microglia could serve a protective role by promoting remyelination via the efficient removal of apoptotic cells, the phagocytosis of debris and the support of myelinating oligodendrocytes. The aim of the present study was to determine if the effect of microglia could promote the recovery of EAE and attenuate symptoms in EAE. The severity of EA...
Source: Molecular Medicine Reports - Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Med Rep Source Type: research
Alemtuzumab is an efficacious therapy for active relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), but its use is complicated by the potential development of secondary autoimmunity.1 Recent data from phase 3 extension studies confirm thyroid autoimmunity as the most abundant entity of secondary autoimmunity found in up to 30%–40% of treated patients, with most events mild or moderate in severity. Data also show low rates of previously known autoimmune phenomena, such as immune thrombocytopenia and nephropathy.2 However, further entities including sarcoidosis, vitiligo, and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) have been described in...
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Autoimmune diseases, Multiple sclerosis Clinical/Scientific Notes Source Type: research
ConclusionsIn a real-world MS population like the one investigated in our study, alemtuzumab was found to be an effective treatment when employed as an escalation or rescue therapy. The compound exhibits a variable safety profile and frequent adverse events that are likely depending on previous treatments and their impact on the immune system.
Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Microglial cell activation is the earliest biomarker of the inflammatory processes that cause central nervous system (CNS) lesions in multiple sclerosis. We hypothesized that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) production by activated microglia and macrophages in the CNS inhibits these inflammatory processes. To test this hypothesis, we targeted the Cyp27b1 gene specifically in myeloid cells, then analyzed the influence of disrupted myeloid cell 1,25-(OH)2D3 synthesis on vitamin D3-mediated resistance to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE).
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
Recent studies identified that interferon beta (IFN- β) treatment skews B-cells towards a regulatory phenotype in multiple sclerosis. To assess B cell involvement during IFN-β therapy, we compared IFN-β treatment in a B cell-independent model and a B cell-dependent model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We show that in B cell-ind ependent EAE, IFN-β ameliorates neuroinflammation. Conversely, in B cell-dependent EAE IFN-β has no effect on disease. Effective IFN-β therapy in B cell-independent EAE was associated with reduced inflammatory T cells in the CNS and skewed splenic B...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune and degenerative disease of the central nervous system, and conventional treatments have limited efficacy or side effects. Ghrelin, a 28-amino acid octanoylated peptide, has been reported to have neuroprotective effects, including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, and anti-apoptosis. Pyroptosis, also called inflammatory cell death, is triggered by overly active inflammasomes and accompanied by the production of numerous cytokines. As immune dysfunction is primarily involved in the pathogenesis of MS, this study aimed to explore the therapeutic effects and precise functional ...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - Category: Palliative Care Tags: BLOOD, BONE MARROW AND LYMPHATICS: Edited by Christopher Dalley Source Type: research
AbstractThe idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) are a group of autoimmune diseases resulting from inflammation of muscle and manifesting as weakness, though a range of extra-muscular manifestations are observed. These are often correlated closely with disease subtype and the presence of myositis-specific/myositis-associated antibodies. IIM are notoriously difficult to treat and often refractory to glucocorticoid therapy and synthetic immunosuppressants. Both the innate and adaptive immune systems are implicated in the pathogenesis of IIM. A growing understanding of the key cytokines as well as the cell-mediated and an...
Source: Rheumatology International - Category: Rheumatology Source Type: research
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