Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 966: Persistent Infection with Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and Alzheimer ’s Disease—A Call to Study How Variability in Both Virus and Host may Impact Disease

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 966: Persistent Infection with Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and Alzheimer’s Disease—A Call to Study How Variability in Both Virus and Host may Impact Disease Viruses doi: 10.3390/v11100966 Authors: Colleen A. Mangold Moriah L. Szpara Increasing attention has focused on the contributions of persistent microbial infections with the manifestation of disease later in life, including neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Current data has shown the presence of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) in regions of the brain that are impacted by AD in elderly individuals. Additionally, neuronal infection with HSV-1 triggers the accumulation of amyloid beta deposits and hyperphosphorylated tau, and results in oxidative stress and synaptic dysfunction. All of these factors are implicated in the development of AD. These data highlight the fact that persistent viral infection is likely a contributing factor, rather than a sole cause of disease. Details of the correlations between HSV-1 infection and AD development are still just beginning to emerge. Future research should investigate the relative impacts of virus strain- and host-specific factors on the induction of neurodegenerative processes over time, using models such as infected neurons in vitro, and animal models in vivo, to begin to understand their relationship with cognitive dysfunction.
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research

Related Links:

This commentary challenges the premise of a viral etiology in Alzheimer's disease by discussing evidence that Herpes simplex virus reactivation reduces progression to Alzheimer's disease, and also proposing that viral reactivation is a compensatory reaction to other causal exposures in Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology. AbstractMany have described the molecular mechanisms underpinning the viral etiology of Alzheimer's disease. This commentary challenges this premise by discussing evidence that Herpes simplex virus reactivation reduces progression to Alzheimer's disease, and also proposing that viral reactivation is a com...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Commentary Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 October 2019Source: Brain, Behavior, and ImmunityAuthor(s): Jason J. Woods, Kathryn A. Skelding, Kristy L. Martin, Ritambhara Aryal, Estelle Sontag, Daniel M. Johnstone, Jay C. Horvat, Philip M. Hansbro, Elizabeth A. MilwardAbstractAlzheimer’s disease, the most common form of dementia, was first formally described in 1907 yet its etiology has remained elusive. Recent proposals that Aβ peptide may be part of the brain immune response have revived longstanding contention about the possibility of causal relationships between brain pathogens and Alzheimer's disease. Research has...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Abstract Alzheimer's disease, the most common form of dementia, was first formally described in 1907 yet its etiology has remained elusive. Recent proposals that Aβ peptide may be part of the brain immune response have revived longstanding contention about the possibility of causal relationships between brain pathogens and Alzheimer's disease. Research has focused on infectious pathogens that may colonize the brain such as herpes simplex type I. Some researchers have proposed the respiratory bacteria Chlamydia pneumoniae may also be implicated in Alzheimer's disease, however this remains controversial. This r...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Brain Behav Immun Source Type: research
Abstract Microglia, as brain-resident macrophages, are the first line of defense against brain invading pathogens. Further, their dysfunction has been recognized to be closely associated with mounting CNS diseases. Of note, chronic HSV-1 infection leads to the persistent activation of microglia, which elicit a comprehensive response by generating certain factors with neurotoxic and neuroprotective effects. CNS infection with HSV-1 results in herpes simplex encephalitis and herpes simplex keratitis. Microglial immune response plays a crucial role in the development of these diseases. Moreover, HSV-1 infection is st...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research
AbstractAlzheimer ’s disease is associated with cerebral accumulation of amyloid-β peptide and hyperphosphorylated tau. In the past 28 years, huge efforts have been made in attempting to treat the disease by reducing brain accumulation of amyloid-β in patients with Alzheimer’s disease, with no success. While an ti-amyloid-β therapies continue to be tested in prodromal patients with Alzheimer’s disease and in subjects at risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease, there is an urgent need to provide therapeutic support to patients with established Alzheimer’s disease for whom current ...
Source: Brain - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Herpes simplex virus type ‐1 infection of adult hippocampal neural stem cells triggers cleavage of amyloid precursor protein with consequent intracellular accumulation of amyloid‐β protein. Following infection, neural stem cells exhibit reduced proliferation and impaired neuronal differentiation in favor of glial phenot ype with respect to mock‐infected neural stem cells. AbstractWe previously reported that Herpes simplex virus type ‐1 (HSV‐1) infection of cultured neurons triggered intracellular accumulation of amyloid‐β protein (Aβ) markedly impinging on neuronal functions. Here, we demonstrate...
Source: Stem Cells - Category: Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Tissue ‐Specific Stem Cells Source Type: research
Authors: Mancuso R, Sicurella M, Agostini S, Marconi P, Clerici M Abstract Introduction: Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia worldwide, is a multifactorial disease with a still unknown etiology. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) has long been suspected to be one of the factors involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Areas covered: We review the literature focusing on viral characteristics of HSV-1, the mechanisms this virus uses to infect neural cells, its interaction with the host immune system and genetic background and summarizes results and research that support the hypothesis of an ass...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
Herpes simplex virus type ‐1 infection of adult hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs) triggers cleavage of Amyloid Precursor Protein with consequent intracellular accumulation of amyloid‐β protein. Following infection, NSCs exhibit reduced proliferation and impaired neuronal differentiation in favor of glial phenotype wi th respect to mock‐infected NSCs. AbstractWe previously reported that Herpes simplex virus type ‐1 (HSV‐1) infection of cultured neurons triggered intracellular accumulation of amyloid‐β protein (Aβ) markedly impinging on neuronal functions. Here we demonstrated that HSV‐1 affec...
Source: Stem Cells - Category: Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Tissue ‐Specific Stem Cells Source Type: research
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive decline in cognitive performance; Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is instead an objective decline in cognitive performance that does not reach pathology. Paired immunoglobulin-like type 2 receptor alpha (PILRA) is a cell surface inhibitory receptor that was recently suggested to be involved in AD pathogenesis. In particular, the arginine-to-glycine substitution in position 78 (R78, rs1859788) was shown to be protective against AD. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection is suspected as well to be involved in AD. I...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research
This study sought to investigate what could be learned from how these men have fared. The men were born in 1925-1928 and similar health-related data from questionnaires, physical examination, and blood samples are available for all surveys. Survival curves over various variable strata were applied to evaluate the impact of individual risk factors and combinations of risk factors on all-cause deaths. At the end of 2018, 118 (16.0%) of the men had reached 90 years of age. Smoking in 1974 was the strongest single risk factor associated with survival, with observed percentages of men reaching 90 years being 26.3, 25.7, ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
More News: Alzheimer's | Brain | Cold Sores | Herpes | Neurology | Study | Virology