Elicitation of the Swallowing Reflex by Esophageal Stimulation in Healthy Subjects: An Evaluation Using High-Resolution Manometry

AbstractThe purposes of this human study using high-resolution manometry were to verify whether the swallowing reflex can be evoked by intra-esophageal fluid injection and whether the reflex latency and manometric variables differ depending on the injected location, amount, or speed. Ten healthy individuals participated in this study. The tip of the intranasal catheter for injection was placed at 5  cm (upper), 10 cm (upper-middle), 15 cm (lower-middle), or 20 cm (lower) from the distal end of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES). An intra-esophageal injection of 3 mL or 10 mL of thickened water was administered and controlled at 3 mL/s or 10 mL/s. Latencies from the start of the injec tion to the onset of UES relaxation were compared regarding injection locations, amounts, and rates. Manometric variables of intra-esophageal injection and voluntary swallowing were compared. The latency became shorter when the upper region was injected. Latency after the 10-mL injection was shorter than that after the 3-mL injection (p 
Source: Dysphagia - Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 14 November 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Panagiotis Lekkas, Marianthi Kontonika, Evgenia S. Georgiou, Vassileios La Rocca, Eleni-Taxiarchia Mouchtouri, Iordanis Mourouzis, Constantinos Pantos, Theofilos M. KolettisAbstractAimsEndothelin has been implicated in various processes in the brain, including the modulation of sympathetic responses. The present study examined the pathophysiologic role of brain endothelin-receptors in the setting of acute myocardial infarction, characterized by high incidence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias.Main methodsWe investigated the effects of intracer...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
In conclusion, our results indicate that PBMT in the parameters selected, attenuated the dystrophic phenotype ofmdx mice, improving skeletal muscle regeneration; reducing the oxidative stress and inflammatory process; and up ‐regulating the angiogenic marker.
Source: Photochemistry and Photobiology - Category: Science Authors: Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
Authors: Roshmi RR, Yokota T Abstract Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the most common lethal X-linked genetic disorder, characterized by progressive muscle loss, with cardiac and respiratory complications. It is caused by a lack of dystrophin protein due to mutations in the DMD gene, which can disrupt the reading frame of the dystrophin primary transcript. Antisense oligonucleotides such as phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs) can induce exon skipping during pre-mRNA splicing and restore the reading frame of the DMD primary transcript. The resulting dystrophin protein is internally deleted but partially fu...
Source: Drugs of Today - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drugs Today (Barc) Source Type: research
Authors: Oliveira-Ferreira C, Leuzinger-Dias M, Tavares-Ferreira J, Silva SE, Brandão E, Falcão-Reis F, Rocha-Sousa A PMID: 31718366 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Ophthalmic Genetics - Category: Opthalmology Tags: Ophthalmic Genet Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Since the hypothalamus represents the link through which the immune functions may influence the psychic functions and vice versa, the psychic functions may influence the immune functions, the cerebellum, controlling several regions of the hypothalamus, could be considered as a primary player in the regulation of the multiple functional interactions postulated by the psychoneuroendocrinoimmunology. PMID: 31729296 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Endocrine, Metabolic and Immune Disorders Drug Targets - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research
Authors: Swiderski K, Bindon R, Trieu J, Naim T, Schokman S, Swaminathan M, Leembruggen AJL, Hill-Yardin EL, Koopman R, Bornstein JC, Lynch GS Abstract Background/Aims: Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy exhibit significant, ongoing impairments in gastrointestinal (GI) function likely resulting from dysregulated nitric oxide production. Compounds increasing neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression and/or activity could improve GI dysfunction and enhance quality of life for dystrophic patients. We used video imaging and spatiotemporal mapping to identify GI dysfunction in mdx dystrophic mice and determine wh...
Source: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: J Neurogastroenterol Motil Source Type: research
ConclusionA review of the clinical and genetic literature did not enable us to propose a single diagnosis for these symptoms or this complex syndrome.
Source: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
In conclusion, MSK exerted a protective effect on rat with focal ischemia-reperfusion injury through its anti-apoptotic effect on neurons and anti-inflammatory effect on astrocytes.
Source: Inflammation - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 November 2019Source: Pharmacological ResearchAuthor(s): Aline C. Oliveira, Elaine M. Richards, Mohan K. RaizadaAbstractPulmonary hypertension (PH) is classically considered a disease of pulmonary vasculature which has been the predominant target for drug development and pH therapy. Despite significant advancement in recent years in identification of new drug targets and innovative treatment strategies, the prognosis of pH remains poor, with median survival of 5 years. Recent studies have demonstrated involvement of neuroinflammation, altered autonomic and gastrointestinal functions and...
Source: Pharmacological Research - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Publication date: 12 November 2019Source: Cell Reports, Volume 29, Issue 7Author(s): Rebecca Resnick, Chao-Jen Wong, Danielle C. Hamm, Sean R. Bennett, Peter J. Skene, Sandra B. Hake, Steven Henikoff, Silvère M. van der Maarel, Stephen J. TapscottSummaryThe DUX4 transcription factor is briefly expressed in the early cleavage-stage embryo, where it induces an early wave of zygotic gene transcription, whereas its mis-expression in skeletal muscle causes the muscular dystrophy facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD). Here, we show that DUX4 induces the expression of the histone variants H3.X and H3.Y. We have used a myobl...
Source: Cell Reports - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
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