Weight status or weight stigma? Obesity stereotypes—Not excess weight—Reduce working memory in school-aged children

Publication date: Available online 18 October 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Child PsychologyAuthor(s): Veronica Guardabassi, Carlo TomasettoAbstractThe high prevalence of childhood obesity has drawn increasing attention to the neurocognitive impairments associated with excess weight, and evidence has accumulated of a progressive decline in working memory at increasing levels of children’s Body Mass Index (BMI). However, obesity is also a highly stigmatizing condition, and pervasive societal stereotypes depict individuals with obesity as less intelligent than those with average weight. For this reason, we investigated whether stereotype threat (i.e., the fear of confirming a negative stereotype attached to one’s social groups) contributes to working memory impairments in children with excess weight. By applying a consolidated paradigm in stereotype threat research, primary school-age children (N = 176) performed a computerized working memory task that was alternatively labeled as diagnostic (i.e., stereotype-threatening) or nondiagnostic (i.e., non-stereotype-threatening) of their intellectual ability. Results confirmed that working memory decreased at increasing levels of BMI in the stereotype-threatening condition, whereas the relation between body weight and working memory was null when task diagnosticity was removed. This effect was not further moderated by children’s direct experiences of weight-based stigmatization or by their personal endorse...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - Category: Child Development Source Type: research

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Publication date: December 2019Source: Preventive Medicine, Volume 129Author(s): James F. Sallis, Nisha Botchwey, Myron F. Floyd, Keshia M. Pollack Porter, M. Renée Umstattd Meyer, J. Aaron Hipp, Anna Kim, Terry L. ConwayAbstractThis guest editorial introduces the rationale and goals of the Physical Activity Research Center. It provides an overview of the five papers in this Special Section plus six commissioned studies intended to inform advocacy efforts.
Source: Preventive Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Objectives: To determine factors associated with nerve injury after acetabulum fracture and to evaluate recovery and outcomes. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Level 1 trauma center. Patients and Participants: Nine hundred seventy-five skeletally mature patients with acetabulum fracture. Intervention: Operative and nonoperative management. Main Outcome Measurements: Nerve injuries, categorized as traumatic or iatrogenic, recovery (none, partial, or complete), and patient-reported functional outcomes with the Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (n = 353, 36.2%). Results: Thirty-two patients (...
Source: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
ConclusionsHemodialysis patients with central obesity, as measured by the A/G ratio, had less favorable plasma lipid profiles and higher levels of inflammation but not an increased risk of ASCVD.
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases - Category: Nutrition Source Type: research
This article describes a simplified technique of endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty using the OverStitch suturing device.
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 25 October 2019Source: Best Practice &Research Clinical AnaesthesiologyAuthor(s): Lori-Ann Oliver, Jodi-Ann Oliver, Sargis Ohanyan, William Park, Aharon Benelyahoo, Nalini VadiveluPeripheral venous access is perhaps the most commonly performed procedure in hospitals, urgent care, or surgical centers across the country. The ability to obtain peripheral intravenous (IV) access, and in a timely manner, is arguably one of the most important skill sets to be mastered by health care professionals. While skill and experience play a role in successful and timely vascular access, numerous pati...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Anaesthesiology - Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Sweet drink consumption among preschool-age children is influenced by multiple factors across all domains of the socio-ecological model. Parents and grandparents are calling for education, healthy environments and supportive policies. SO WHAT?: Contrary to common rhetoric, children's sweet drink consumption is often influenced by factors beyond parental control. A multi-component strategy is required to support parents and grandparents in their efforts to make healthy choices for their children. PMID: 31724247 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Health Promotion Journal of Australia - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Health Promot J Austr Source Type: research
Authors: Kusumastuti SA, Nugrahaningsih DAA, Wahyuningsih MSH Abstract Insulin resistance in obese condition is related to chronic low-grade inflammation which leads to insulin signaling impairment. Centella asiatica (L.) is an herb that exhibits anti-inflammatory and blood sugar-lowering activity (hypoglycemia). The study aims to investigate the molecular mechanism of C. asiatica extract in insulin sensitivity improvement in a coculture of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages. A coculture of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages were incubated with LPS to induce insuli...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research
ConclusionDespite a limited mean weight loss of 3.6  kg, participants reported a significant decrease in the symptoms and the burden of UI. Using PFMT as an integrated part of the intervention might have contributed to the improvements and could be subject to future research.
Source: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
IJERPH, Vol. 16, Pages 4540: Functional Status and Body Mass Index in Postmenopausal Women with Fibromyalgia: A Case–control Study International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph16224540 Authors: Laura Cerón Lorente María Carmen García Ríos Santiago Navarro Ledesma Rosa María Tapia Haro Antonio Casas Barragán María Correa-Rodríguez María Encarnación Aguilar Ferrándiz Reduced functional capacity is a common characteristic of fibromyalgia (FMS). We aimed to investigate the relationship ...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Source: Obesity Surgery - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
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