Identification of coevolution sites and evolution history for neuraminidase of human influenza A viruses

A recent study in this journal compared codon usage among NA subtypes (N1, N2, N6, and N8)  of H5Nx highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (HPAIVs) and suggested that codon usage in N1 subtype is better adapted to its host than the epidemic NA subtypes (N6 and N8), which had fewer number of human cases compared to the N1 subtype.1 To date, there are 18 known HA subtypes (H1-H18) and 11 known NA subtypes (N1-N11)2. However, only N1 and N2 subtypes have been reported to cause pandemics (H1N1 for the 1918 and 2009 pandemics; H2N2 for the 1957 pandemic; and H3N2 for the 1968 pandemic) or seasonal outbreaks in humans3.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

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Analysis suggests too little attention is paid to gender disparities in medical trialsCoronavirus – latest updatesSee all our coronavirus coverageHistorically, medical research has often taken a one-size-fits-all approach, lumping women and men together despite growing evidence that the sexes differ in how they catch and fight disease.A stark example was the heart drug digoxin, which was widely marketed in the late 1990s on the basis of a trial that showed it to beeffective and safe. But over time a higher incidence of side-effects in women emerged. When the same dataset wasanalysed on the basis of sex, it showed dig...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Medical research Gender Coronavirus outbreak Infectious diseases Science World news Microbiology Source Type: news
WHO warns death tollcould be higher than 2 million without concerted action;Madrid braces for lockdown as Spain reaches 716,481 total infections;surge in cases in AthensFigures prompt French and Dutch warnings, and row in SpainUS approaches 7m cases as officials warn surge could comeWhat lessons can Europe learn from Sweden ’s experience?Why dogs might be a Covid tester ’s best friend7.50pmBSTOfficials have stopped a Covid-19 testing study in theUSafter multiple reports that state and federal public health workers were threatened and face racial slurs.The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention pulled f...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Coronavirus outbreak World news UK news US news Australia news Science Infectious diseases Source Type: news
Authors: Mishra VN, Kumari N, Pathak A, Chaturvedi RK, Gupta AK, Chaurasia RN Abstract An outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first reported in Wuhan City, China, in December 2019. Since then, the outbreak has grown into a global pandemic, and neither a vaccine nor a treatment for the disease, termed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is currently available. The slow translational progress in the field of research suggests that a large number of studies are urgently required. In this context, this review explores the impact of bacteriophages on SARS-CoV-2, especially conce...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: All mentioned aspects have a direct impact on the mental health of professionals, demanding the creation of strategies that minimize the emotional burnout of workers, considering that each country and culture reacts differently to the disease. PMID: 32965402 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem - Category: Nursing Authors: Tags: Rev Bras Enferm Source Type: research
Abstract OBJECTIVE: to develop a protocol of recommendations for facing dissemination of COVID-19 in Brazilian Nursing Homes. METHOD: a study of experts' recommendations using a structured form applied through the Delphi Technique, obtaining 100% agreement among professionals after four rounds of analysis. The population comprised six nurses members of the Scientific Department of Gerontological Nursing of the Brazilian Association of Nursing (Associação Brasileira de Enfermagem). RESULTS: the protocol was structured in a nucleus of nursing interventions to face the spread of COVID-19 in Nu...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem - Category: Nursing Authors: Tags: Rev Bras Enferm Source Type: research
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To analyze information on resource allocation in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, published in indexed scientific journals, from December 2019 to March 2020. METHODS: This is an integrative literature review, which took place in March 2020. All databases were investigated and studies were found only in MEDLINE. After applying the established criteria, six articles were selected. RESULTS: It was evident that the allocation of resources is carried out as the demands emerge. The fragility in presenting scientific-methodological evidence that can guide decision makers for assertive a...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem - Category: Nursing Authors: Tags: Rev Bras Enferm Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: cloth masks should be used together with preventive measures, such as home insulation, good respiratory conduct, and regular hand hygiene. PMID: 32965398 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem - Category: Nursing Authors: Tags: Rev Bras Enferm Source Type: research
This study was designed to investigate effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) on clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients and to assess the safety of ACEIs/ARBs medication. MATERIAL AND METHODS COVID-19 patients with hypertension from 2 hospitals in Wuhan, China, from 17 Feb to 18 Mar 2020 were retrospectively screened and grouped according to in-hospital medication. We performed 1: 1 propensity score matching (PSM) analysis to adjust for confounding factors. RESULTS We included 210 patients and allocated them to ACEIs/ARBs (n=81; 46.91% males) or non-ACEIs/ARBs...
Source: Medical Science Monitor - Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS Chinese scholars visiting the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic experienced severe psychological distress. Surveys that include larger numbers of visiting scholars are warranted. PMID: 32966271 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Medical Science Monitor - Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research
[allAfrica] Cape Town -- The World Health Organisation (WHO) recently commended South Africa for its declining Covid-19 infection rate, approving the implementation of public health measures to curb the spread of the virus. This, according to WHO Regional Director for Africa Dr Matshidiso Moeti, is indicative of a larger trend across the continent. Moeti spoke during an online media briefing to examine the status of the Covid-19 outbreak across the continent.
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news
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