Boosting immune system against cancer by melatonin: A mechanistic viewpoint

Publication date: Available online 17 October 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Keywan Mortezaee, Yaiza Potes, Hanifeh Mirtavoos-Mahyari, Elahe Motevaseli, Dheyauldeen Shabeeb, Ahmed Eleojo Musa, Masoud Najafi, Bagher FarhoodAbstractCancer is a disease of high complexity. Resistance to therapy is a major challenge in cancer targeted therapies. Overcoming this resistance requires a deep knowledge of the cellular interactions within tumor. Natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are the main anti-cancer immune cells, while T regulatory cells (Tregs) and cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) facilitate immune escape of cancer cells. Melatonin is a natural agent with anti-cancer functions that has also been suggested as an adjuvant in combination with cancer therapy modalities such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy and tumor vaccination. One of the main effects of melatonin is regulation of immune responses against cancer cells. Melatonin has been shown to potentiate the activities of anti-cancer immune cells, as well as attenuating the activities of Tregs and CAFs. It also has a potent effect on the mitochondria, which may change immune responses against cancer. In this review, we explain the mechanisms of immune regulation by melatonin involved in its anti-cancer effects.Graphical abstractMechanisms of apoptotic resistance of cancer cells and sensitizing effect of melatonin. NF-κB plays a central role in the resistance of cancer cells to a...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research

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ConclusionAlthough classically, majority of studies have shown oncogenic roles of nucleoporins as genetic fusion partners in several types of leukemia, emerging evidence suggests that nucleoporins also modulate many cellular signaling pathways that are associated with several major non-hematological malignancies, such as carcinomas of skin, breast, lung, prostate and colon. Hence, nucleoporins are emerging as novel therapeutic targets in human tumors.
Source: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Cancers, Vol. 11, Pages 1806: Complex Formation with Monomeric α-Tubulin and Importin 13 Fosters c-Jun Protein Stability and Is Required for c-Jun’s Nuclear Translocation and Activity Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers11111806 Authors: Melanie Kappelmann-Fenzl Silke Kuphal Rosemarie Krupar Dirk Schadendorf Viktor Umansky Lily Vardimon Claus Hellerbrand Anja-Katrin Bosserhoff Microtubules are highly dynamic structures, which consist of α- and β-tubulin heterodimers. They are essential for a number of cellular processes, including intracellular trafficking and mitosis. Tubulin-b...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
In conclusion, Acacetin induces mitochondrial ROS-mediated cell death in a caspase-independent manner in SW480 and HCT-116 colon carcinoma cells by inducing apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), which may potentiate its anticancer and chemotherapeutic prospects against colorectal carcinoma. PMID: 31734898 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Molecular Biology Reports - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Mol Biol Rep Source Type: research
Constitutive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) occurs in ∼70% of human cancers, and STAT3 is regarded as one of the most promising targets for cancer therapy. However, specific direct STAT3 inhibitors remain to be developed. Oridonin is an ent-kaurane plant-derived diterpenoid with anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities. Here, using an array of cell-based and biochemical approaches, including cell proliferation and apoptosis assays, pulldown and reporter gene assays, site-directed mutagenesis, and molecular dynamics analyses, we report that a thiazole-derived oridonin analog...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Signal Transduction Source Type: research
The next generation Androgen receptor (AR)-targeted therapies are now in widespread clinical use and prolong prostate cancer (CaP) patient survival. However, the therapies are not curative due to diverse range of resistance mechanisms. AR variants (AR-V), one major mechanism of resistance, has recently gained momentum. Here, we found that GABARAPL1 knockdown inhibits the growth of AR-positive LNCaP and CWR22rv1 CaP cells in vitro and in vivo, decreases AR/AR-V transcription activity and AR nuclear translocation. Pulldown assay shows that both of Full-length (FL)-AR and AR-V were able to interact with GABARAPL1, suggesting ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
The RSC complex remodels chromatin structure and regulates gene transcription. We used cryo–electron microscopy to determine the structure of yeast RSC bound to the nucleosome. RSC is delineated into the adenosine triphosphatase motor, the actin-related protein module, and the substrate recruitment module (SRM). RSC binds the nucleosome mainly through the motor, with the auxiliary subunit Sfh1 engaging the H2A-H2B acidic patch to enable nucleosome ejection. SRM is organized into three substrate-binding lobes poised to bind their respective nucleosomal epitopes. The relative orientations of the SRM and the motor on th...
Source: ScienceNOW - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Biochemistry r-articles Source Type: news
In this study, we found that the expressions of DSCR1-1L mRNA and proteins were upregulated by other angiogenic factors, including VEGF-A121, VEGF-E, histamine, PAF, the endothelial cell (EC) growth medium, and the conditional medium obtained from cancer cells, but not by PlGF, bFGF, PDGF, and serotonin. The EC proliferation, migration and elongation induced by histamine and EC growth medium were inhibited by knocking down the mRNA and protein expressions of DSCR1-1L and TEF3. The TEF3 activation was regulated by its interaction with YAP1, and translocation from cytosol to nuclei, but not by increase of protein expression,...
Source: Microvascular Research - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Signal Transduction Source Type: research
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Source: Nutrition and Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract The rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale) a common culinary agent is also known for its medicinal activity. We have earlier reported that pure 6-shogaol, an important component of ginger induces paraptosis in triple negative breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) and non small cell lung (A549) cancer cells. However, the chemopreventive potential of the whole ginger extract in food remains to be elucidated. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that ginger extract (GE) triggers similar anticancer activity/paraptosis against the same cell lines but through different molecular mechanisms. Q-TOF LC-MS analysis of the...
Source: Nutrition and Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Nutr Cancer Source Type: research
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