Antimalarial Activity of Human Group IIA Secreted Phospholipase A2 in Relation to Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Oxidized Lipoproteins Molecular Pathogenesis

The level of human group IIA secreted phospholipase A2 (hGIIA sPLA2) is increased in the plasma of malaria patients, but its role is unknown. In parasite culture with normal plasma, hGIIA is inactive against Plasmodium falciparum, contrasting with hGIIF, hGV, and hGX sPLA2s, which readily hydrolyze plasma lipoproteins, release nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), and inhibit parasite growth. Here, we revisited the anti-Plasmodium activity of hGIIA under conditions closer to those of malaria physiopathology where lipoproteins are oxidized. In parasite culture containing oxidized lipoproteins, hGIIA sPLA2 was inhibitory, with a 50% inhibitory concentration value of 150.0 ± 40.8 nM, in accordance with its capacity to release NEFAs from oxidized particles. With oxidized lipoproteins, hGIIF, hGV, and hGX sPLA2s were also more potent, by 4.6-, 2.1-, and 1.9-fold, respectively. Using specific immunoassays, we found that hGIIA sPLA2 is increased in plasma from 41 patients with malaria over levels for healthy donors (median [interquartile range], 1.6 [0.7 to 3.4] nM versus 0.0 [0.0 to 0.1] nM, respectively; P
Source: Infection and Immunity - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Molecular Pathogenesis Source Type: research

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AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to discuss the current knowledge of HIV and tissue parasite co-infection in the context of transmission enhancement, clinical characteristics, treatment, relapse, and clinical outcomes.Recent FindingsThe pathophysiology and clinical sequelae of tissue parasites in people living with HIV (PLWH) have been well described for only a handful of organisms, primarily protozoa such as malaria and leishmaniasis. Available published data indicate that the interactions between HIV and tissue parasites are highly variable depending on the infecting organism and the degree of host ...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
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Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
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Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
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Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Integrative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research
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Source: NSF Discoveries - Category: Science Source Type: research
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Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
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Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
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