Long Non-coding RNAs in Myeloid Malignancies

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) represents 80% of adult leukemias and 15–20% of childhood leukemias. AML are characterized by the presence of 20% blasts or more in the bone marrow, or defining cytogenetic abnormalities. Laboratory diagnoses of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) depend on morphological changes based on dysplasia in peripheral blood and bone marrow, including peripheral blood smears, bone marrow aspirate smears, and bone marrow biopsies. As leukemic cells are not functional, the patient develops anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia, leading to fatigue, recurrent infections, and hemorrhage. The genetic background and associated mutations in AML blasts determine the clinical course of the disease. Over the last decade, non-coding RNAs transcripts that do not codify for proteins but play a role in regulation of functions have been shown to have multiple applications in the diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic approach of various types of cancers, including myeloid malignancies. After a comprehensive review of current literature, we found reports of multiple long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) that can differentiate between AML types and how their exogenous modulation can dramatically change the behavior of AML cells. These lncRNAs include: H19, LINC00877, RP11-84C10, CRINDE, RP11848P1.3, ZNF667-AS1, AC111000.4-202, SFMBT2, LINC02082-201, MEG3, AC009495.2, PVT1, HOTTIP, SNHG5, and CCAT1. In addition, by performing an analysis on available AML data in The Cancer Gen...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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