Profiling Transcriptional Regulation and Functional Roles of Schistosoma mansoni c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase

Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play a regulatory role and influence various biological activities, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Our group has demonstrated through functional studies that Schistosoma mansoni c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SmJNK) MAPK is involved in the parasite’s development, reproduction, and survival. SmJNK can, therefore, be considered a potential target for the development of new drugs. Considering the importance of SmJNK in S. mansoni maturation, we aimed at understanding of SmJNK regulated signaling pathways in the parasite, correlating expression data with S. mansoni development. To better understand the role of SmJNK in S. mansoni intravertebrate host life stages, RNA interference knockdown was performed in adult worms and in schistosomula larval stage. SmJNK knocked-down in adult worms showed a decrease in oviposition and no significant alteration in their movement. RNASeq libraries of SmJNK knockdown schistosomula were sequenced. A total of 495 differentially expressed genes were observed in the SmJNK knockdown parasites, of which 373 were down-regulated and 122 up-regulated. Among the down-regulated genes, we found transcripts related to protein folding, purine nucleotide metabolism, the structural composition of ribosomes and cytoskeleton. Genes coding for proteins that bind to nucleic acids and proteins involved in the phagosome and spliceosome pathways were enriched. Additionally, we found that SmJNK and S...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

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We present a series of cases of lungworm infection in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) associated with novel, significant and unusual pulmonary vascular changes. Grey seals (n = 180) that were stranded, in rehabilitation or in long-term captivity in the UK were subjected to post-mortem examination between 2012 and 2018. Lung tissue was collected from 47 individuals for histopathological examination. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on formalin-fixed and paraffin wax-embedded (FFPE) material was attempted for parasite identification on selected sections using lungworm-specific primers, and nematode morphology within...
Source: Journal of Comparative Pathology - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to analyze the correlation between lesions caused by Eimeria and the prevalence of coccidiosis and other alterations found in the gastrointestinal tracts of broilers produced in Brazil from 2017 to 2018. Intestinal health evaluations were performed in 32 integrations (farm) of broilers in Brazil, totaling 726 birds analyzed between the ages of 22 and 40 days. Necropsied chickens were collected at three different points, with at least three birds per shed. We analyzed the following changes in the gastrointestinal tract: presence of cellular desquamation, fluid and mucus excess, ingestion of...
Source: Parasitology International - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
(Reuters Health) - With the help of some London primary school children, scientists have discovered that certain soup broths passed down from generation to generation might aid in battling malaria by interrupting the life cycle of the deadly parasite.
Source: Reuters: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 19 November 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Lei Lin, Meng Qiao, Xing Zhang, Robert J. LinhardtAbstractCarbohydrates are often found linked to lipids or proteins, to form glycoconjugates such as glycolipids, glycoproteins and proteoglycans. These glycoconjugates play important biological roles, involving cell-cell recognition, inflammation, immune response, tumor metastasis and in viral/bacterial/parasitic infections. However, it is difficult to obtain these naturally occurring glycoconjugates as they are often heterogeneous compositions, which causes batch-to-batch variability...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research
Publication date: 19 November 2019Source: Cell Reports, Volume 29, Issue 8Author(s): Wiebke Hartmann, Marie-Luise Brunn, Nadine Stetter, Nicola Gagliani, Franziska Muscate, Stephanie Stanelle-Bertram, Gülsah Gabriel, Minka BreloerSummaryHelminth parasites infect more than a quarter of the human population and inflict significant changes to the immunological status of their hosts. Here, we analyze the impact of helminth infections on the efficacy of vaccinations using Litomosoides sigmodontis-infected mice. Concurrent helminth infection reduces the quantity and quality of antibody responses to vaccination against seaso...
Source: Cell Reports - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Molecular and Histopathological Data on Levisunguis subaequalis Curran, Overstreet, Collins &Benz, 2014 (Pentastomida: Eupentastomida: Porocephalida: Porocephaloidea: Sebekidae: Sebekinae) from Gambusia affinis in Alabama, USA. J Parasitol. 2019 Dec;105(6):827-839 Authors: Woodyard ET, Stilwell JM, Camus AC, Rosser TG Abstract Levisunguis subaequalis Curran, Overstreet, Collins &Benz, 2014 , was recently described from the lungs of the definitive hosts, softshell turtles, Apalone ferox (Schneider, 1783), and Apalone spinifera aspera (Agassiz, 1857) as well as the viscera of an intermediate hos...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research
This study highlights the remarkable genetic diversity in Blastocystis sp. isolates from zoo animals and provides the first molecular evidence from spotted deer, gayal and grey langur. Due to circulation of large percentage of potentially zoonotic subtypes in the wild animals, there is a higher risk of zoonotic transmission of Blastocystis sp. in the zoo keepers and visitors.Graphical abstract
Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
(Duke University) Engineers at Duke University have developed a microscope that adapts its lighting angles, colors and patterns while teaching itself the optimal settings needed to complete a given diagnostic task. In the initial proof-of-concept study, the microscope simultaneously developed a lighting pattern and classification system that allowed it to quickly identify red blood cells infected by the malaria parasite more accurately than trained physicians and other machine learning approaches.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 19 November 2019Source: International Journal of PharmaceuticsAuthor(s): Leonie Wagner-Hattler, Gabriela Québatte, Jennifer Keiser, Joachim Schoelkopf, Christian M. Schlepütz, Jörg Huwyler, Maxim PuchkovAbstractUniform drug distribution within fast disintegrating tablets is a key quality measure to ensure a reliable, steady, and targeted release of the contained active pharmaceutical ingredients. In this work, the drug particle distribution in mini-tablets was studied with synchrotron phase contrast X-ray microtomography. Mini-tablets had a weight of 9.5 mg and a drug loa...
Source: International Journal of Pharmaceutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
This study aimed to provide data on the occurrence, genetic characterization, and epidemiological significance of Sarcocystis spp. in cattle destined for human consumption in Romania. A total of 117 heart samples from slaughtered cattle in three southwestern Romanian counties (Dolj, Timiș, and Gorj) were analyzed in order to detect sarcocysts, using fresh examination microscopic techniques. Subsequently, the isolated sarcocysts and/or cyst fragments (5-15 per sample) from each infected animal were molecularly characterized. Overall, 17.9% (21/117) of the tested animals were found to be Sarcocystis spp. positive by microsc...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
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