The immunobiology of autoimmune encephalitides.

The immunobiology of autoimmune encephalitides. J Autoimmun. 2019 Oct 11;:102339 Authors: Alexopoulos H, Dalakas MC Abstract Autoimmune encephalitides, with an estimated incidence of 1.5 per million population per year, although described only 15 years ago, have already had a remarkable impact in neurology and paved the field to autoimmune neuropsychiatry. Many patients traditionally presented with aberrant behavior, especially of acute or subacute onset, and treated with anti-psychotic therapies, turn out to have a CNS autoimmune disease with pathogenic autoantibodies against synaptic antigens responding to immunotherapies. The review describes the clinical spectrum of these disorders, and the pathogenetic role of key autoantibodies directed against: a) cell surface synaptic antigens and receptors, including NMDAR, GABAa, GABAb, AMPA and glycine receptors; b) channels such as AQP4 water-permeable channel or voltage-gated potassium channels; c) proteins that stabilize voltage-gated potassium channel complex into the membrane, like the LGI1 and CASPR2; and d) enzymes that catalyze the formation of neurotransmitters such as Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD). These antibodies, effectively target excitatory or inhibitory synapses in the limbic system, basal ganglia or brainstem altering synaptic function and resulting in uncontrolled neurological excitability disorder clinically manifested with psychosis, agitation, behavioral alterations, depression, sleep ...
Source: Journal of Autoimmunity - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: J Autoimmun Source Type: research

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In conclusion, this study demonstrates the concept of combining docetaxel with the biodegradable microparticles at the point of care is technically feasible for achieving an effective drug-device combination tissue scaffold. This approach could provide an effective new approach for delivering adjuvant chemotherapy following radical prostatectomy. PMID: 31735095 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Drug Delivery - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Deliv Source Type: research
In this study, a redox-sensitive CPT-OA conjugate containing the disulfide bond (CPT-SS-OA) was used to deliver the lactone-stabilized CPT for the improved antitumor efficacy. A non-sensitive CPT-OA was used as control to illuminate the role of disulfide bond. Both CPT-SS-OA and CPT-OA formulated in cremophor EL micelles (CM) displayed multiple therapeutic advantages: small diameter (∼14 nm), efficient cellular internalization, prolonged blood circulation, and favorable biodistribution. However, only CPT-SS-OA/CM achieved the superior chemotherapeutic efficacy over CPT solution in the Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cancer ...
Source: Drug Delivery - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Deliv Source Type: research
Authors: Zan Y, Dai Z, Liang L, Deng Y, Dong L Abstract Sorafenib (SOR) is a multi-kinase inhibitor that was approved as the first-line systematic treatment agent of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the anti-cancerous effect of SOR is dramatically impaired by the drug resistance, insufficient accumulation at tumor tissues, and limited tumor inner penetration. To combat the above issues, the PLA-based nanoparticles were first fabricated and co-loaded with SOR and plantamajoside (PMS), natural herbal medicines that possess excellent anti-cancerous effect on many types of drug resistant cancers. Then, the poly...
Source: Drug Delivery - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Deliv Source Type: research
Authors: Fang W, Peng ZL, Dai YJ, Wang DL, Huang P, Huang HP Abstract Realgar and (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) are natural medicines that inhibit cancer cell growth, resulting in inhibition of formation and development of tumors. The anticancer effects of realgar and EGCG were greatly improved following formulation as nanoparticles. EGCG has received increased attention as a drug carrier. The aim of this study was to prepare a new nanomedicine, (EGCG-RNPs), in which encapsulated nano-realgar. EGCG-RNPs were prepared by coprecipitation and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differentia...
Source: Drug Delivery - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Deliv Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 November 2019Source: Journal of Analytical and Applied PyrolysisAuthor(s): Taiping Chen, Huanpeng Liu, Rushan BieAbstractTemperature rise characteristics of subbituminous coal impregnated with KOH in a wide range of KOH/coal ratio (w/w, 0.25∼2) under microwave (MW) heating were investigated and the catalytic performance in methane decomposition (CMD) over the resultant activated carbon (AC) was measured. The results showed that with the increase of KOH content, the temperature rise ability of the coal-KOH adduct under MW-field increases gradually, and the maximum temperature that c...
Source: Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Chem. Commun., 2019, Accepted Manuscript DOI: 10.1039/C9CC07996C, CommunicationZhifeng Liu, Yusi Yang, Leqing Deng, Lulu Tan, Xiaogang Niu, Moustafa Sanad, Liang Zeng, Zhiping Zhu, Yujie Zhu When tested as the cathode material for potassium-ion batteries, K2V3O8 delivers a highly reversible capacity over 100 mAh g-1 in the voltage range of 1.5-4.5 V with 73% capacity retained... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
Source: RSC - Chem. Commun. latest articles - Category: Chemistry Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Discriminative identification of homologous miRNAs in miRNA family with high specificity and sensitivity is crucial for accurate classification, diagnosis and prognosis of breast cancer. Herein, we report a reliable, sensitive, and selective assay by coupling fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) with cascade signal amplification. The strategy is developed by designing two programmable DNA probes that can be triggered to shift from "off" to "on" state in a cascade hybridization reaction in the presence of target miRNA let-7a, leading to the generation of an amplified signal. Th...
Source: Analytica Chimica Acta - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Anal Chim Acta Source Type: research
Abstract Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was associated with many human diseases, therefore, SNP detection was important for early diagnosis and clinical prognosis. Herein, a simple and accurate method for visual detection SNP sites (A/A, G/G, A/G) in CYP1A1 gene related to cancers based on colloidal gold nucleic acid strip biosensor and primer-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was established. This method could directly distinguish SNP sites on strip biosensor by introducing twice PCR amplifications. The second PCR (primer-specific PCR) was performed using specific product of the first PCR as template...
Source: Analytica Chimica Acta - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Anal Chim Acta Source Type: research
Abstract Nowadays, heterocyclic compounds act as a scaffold and are the backbone of medicinal chemistry. Among all of the heterocyclic scaffolds, 1,4-Dihydropyridine (1,4-DHP) is one of the most important heterocyclic rings that possess prominent therapeutic effects in a very versatile manner and plays an important role in synthetic, medicinal, and bioorganic chemistry. The main aim of the study is to review and encompass relevant studies related to 1,4-DHP and excellent therapeutic benefits of its derivatives. An extensive review of Pubmed-Medline, Embase and Lancet's published articles was done to find all relev...
Source: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Mini Rev Med Chem Source Type: research
UROLOGIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Source Type: research
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