Secreted Wnt6 mediates diabetes-associated centrosome amplification via its receptor FZD4.

In conclusion, our results showed that the pathophysiological factors in type 2 diabetes, including AGEs, were able to induce centrosome amplification. It is suggested that secreted Wnt6 binds to FZD4 to activate the canonical Wnt6 signaling pathway which is upstream of ROCK1 and 14-3-3σ, which is the cell signaling pathway underlying the diabetes-associated centrosome amplification. PMID: 31618077 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Am J Physiol Cell Ph... - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Am J Physiol Cell Physiol Source Type: research

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Abstract Magnesium (in its ionized and biologically active form, Mg2+) is an essential trace element that participates in numerous physiologic processes. Abnormal Mg2+ homeostasis can lead to many metabolic disorders, including diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications. Mg2+ participates in energy generation and is required for DNA and RNA synthesis, reproduction, and protein synthesis. Additionally, Mg2+ acts as a calcium antagonist and protects vascular endothelial cells from oxidative stress. Imbalances in Mg2+ status, more frequently hypomagnesemia, inhibit glucose transporter type 4 translocation, increase...
Source: Biological Trace Element Research - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Biol Trace Elem Res Source Type: research
In this study, we hypothesized that moderately and chronically reducing ACh could attenuate the deleterious effects of aging on NMJs and skeletal muscles. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed NMJs and muscle fibers from heterozygous transgenic mice with reduced expression of the vesicular ACh transporter (VAChT), VKDHet mice, which present with approximately 30% less synaptic ACh compared to control mice. Because ACh is constitutively decreased in VKDHet, we first analyzed developing NMJs and muscle fibers. We found no obvious morphological or molecular differences between NMJs and muscle fibers of VKDHet and contro...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
ConclusionsWe conclude that the β-adrenergic pathway is still functionally intact upon the inhibition of PI3Kα, showing that the activation of downstream insulin effectors is not required for the acute effects of β-adrenoceptor agonists on glucose homeostasis or thermogenesis.Graphical abstract
Source: Molecular Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
ConclusionsWe conclude that the β-adrenergic pathway is still functionally intact upon the inhibition of PI3Kα, showing that the activation of downstream insulin effectors is not required for the acute effects of β-adrenoceptor agonists on glucose homeostasis or thermogenesis.
Source: Molecular Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Albiflorin (AF) is a small molecule (MW 481) isolated from Paeoniae radix, a plant used as a remedy for various conditions with pathogenesis shared by metabolic diseases. Reported here is our characterization of its therapeutic profiles in three mouse models with distinctive pathological features of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Our results firstly showed that AF alleviated high fat (HF) induced obesity and associated glucose intolerance, suggesting its therapeutic efficacy for MetS. In the type 2 diabetes (T2D) model induced by a combination of HF and low doses of streptozotocin, AF lowered hyperglycaemia and improved insuli...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Abstract Skeletal muscle handles about 80-90% of the insulin-induced glucose uptake. In skeletal muscle, insulin binding to its cell surface receptor triggers redistribution of intracellular glucose transporter GLUT4 protein to the cell surface, enabling facilitated glucose uptake. In adipocytes, the eight-protein exocyst complex is an indispensable constituent in insulin-induced glucose uptake, as it is responsible for the targeted trafficking and plasma membrane-delivery of GLUT4. However, the role of the exocyst in skeletal muscle glucose uptake has never been investigated. Here we demonstrate that the exocyst ...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research
In conclusion, these results indicate that the CAV3 K15N mutation may cause insulin-stimulated impaired glucose metabolism in myocytes, which may contribute to the development of T2DM. PMID: 31572504 [PubMed]
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research
In this study, we aimed to investigate the cardioprotective effect of kirenol against DCM and underlying the potential mechanisms in a type 2 diabetes mellitus model. Kirenol treatment significantly decreased high glucose-induced cardiofibroblasts proliferation and increased the cardiomyocytes viability, prevented the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and further attenuated cardiomyocytes apoptosis, accompanied by a reduction in apoptosis-related protein expression. Kirenol gavage could affect the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner but not lower lipid profiles, and only decrease fast...
Source: J Cell Mol Med - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: J Cell Mol Med Source Type: research
Abstract Insulin resistance causes several adverse effects such as hypertension, diabetes and different aspects of cardiovascular diseases. Patrinia scabiosaefolia Fisch. ex Trev. is a traditional Chinese edible herbal, whose n-BuOH extract significantly increased glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes at 12.5 μM. Further analysis lead to find two compounds (1-2) with significant activity on improving insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes at concentrations around 25.0 μM (P 
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - Category: Food Science Authors: Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research
We examined human lung tissue from COPD patients and normal control subjects, and found a substantial increase in p16-expressing alveolar cells in COPD patients. Using a transgenic mouse deficient for p16, we demonstrated that lungs of mice lacking p16 were structurally and functionally resistant to CS-induced emphysema due to activation of IGF1/Akt regenerative and protective signaling. Fat Tissue Surrounds Skeletal Muscle to Accelerate Atrophy in Aging and Obesity https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2019/09/fat-tissue-surrounds-skeletal-muscle-to-accelerate-atrophy-in-aging-and-obesity/ Researchers her...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
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