Toilet Training: Common Questions and Answers.

Toilet Training: Common Questions and Answers. Am Fam Physician. 2019 Oct 15;100(8):468-474 Authors: Baird DC, Bybel M, Kowalski AW Abstract Toilet training is a significant developmental milestone in early childhood. Most U.S. children achieve the physiologic, cognitive, and emotional development necessary for toilet training by 18 to 30 months of age. Markers of readiness for toilet training include being able to walk, put on and remove clothing, and follow parental instruction; expressive language; awareness of a full bladder or rectum; and demonstrated dissatisfaction with a soiled diaper. Other readiness cues include imitating toileting behavior, expressing desire to toilet, and demonstrating bladder or bowel control (staying dry through a nap or through the night). Physicians should provide anticipatory guidance to parents beginning at about 18 to 24 months of age, noting the signs of toilet training readiness, and setting realistic expectations for parents. Parents should be counseled that no training method is superior to another. Parents should choose a method that is best suited to them and their child, and the method should use positive reinforcement. Complications of toilet training include stool toileting refusal, stool withholding, encopresis, hiding to defecate, and enuresis. These problems typically resolve with time, although some may require further investigation and treatment. Medical comorbidities such as Down syndrome, autism spectru...
Source: American Family Physician - Category: Primary Care Authors: Tags: Am Fam Physician Source Type: research

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This report on four cases demonstrates that mimicking normal and variable GM sequences might have a posit ive cascading effect on neurodevelopment. The results need to be interpreted with caution and replication studies on larger samples are warranted. Nonetheless, this innovative approach may represent a first step into a new intervention strategy.
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - Category: Disability Source Type: research
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Source: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
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Source: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
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Source: Research in Developmental Disabilities - Category: Disability Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 November 2019Source: Journal of Membrane ScienceAuthor(s): Dongju Lee, Yun Chul Woo, Kwang Hyun Park, Sherub Phuntsho, Leonard D. Tijing, Minwei Yao, Wang-Geun Shim, Ho Kyong ShonAbstractThe instability of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes in membrane distillation (MD) for seawater desalination is still a problem, despite the tremendous effort expended to resolve this issue. Here, a simple and feasible approach for improving desalination performance through the incorporation of two-dimensional boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) in polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene (PVDF...
Source: Journal of Membrane Science - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Materials Science and Technology - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
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Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Ergonomics, Human Factors, Anthropometrics, Physiology Source Type: news
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Source: Critical Care Medicine - Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Neurologic Critical Care Source Type: research
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Source: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
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