Variable dependency on BAFF in IgG antibody production during Leishmania infection

In this study, dependency of antibody production in Leishmania infection on BAFF was examined by using BAFF-knockout (BAFF-KO) mice. When BAFF-KO mice were infected with L. major, there was no significant difference in lesion development or parasite burden from those in infected wildtype mice. In contrast, levels of IgG antibodies to Leishmania crude antigen were lower in BAFF-KO mice, suggesting that antibody production during L. major infection is BAFF-dependent. ELISA using defined leishmanial antigens demonstrated that the influence of BAFF on antibody production during L. major varies depending on antigens; IgG production to tandem repeat proteins were more affected by BAFF than non-repeat antigens. On the contrary, all of the defined antigens tested were strongly affected by BAFF for IgG antibody production during L. donovani infection. These results suggest degree of BAFF contribution to antibody production during infection is variable depending on the type of infection and even on the type of antigen in a given infection. These results may explain contradictory roles of BAFF in antibody production in previous works.
Source: Parasitology International - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research

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Abstract Background: Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by an intracellular parasite of Leishmania and is transmitted through the female sandflies bite and may lead to severe skin lesions. Although drugs such as antimony compounds are available, their side effects such as toxicity, low efficacy, and emergence of resistance have raised the importance of effective replacement. Imatinib, as an inhibitor of tyrosine kinase (TK) of Leishmania, stops abnormal function of TK such as Bcr-Abl through assembling into transmembrane pores in a sterol-dependent manner. Hence, the evaluation of killing effects of dif...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Adv Biomed Res Source Type: research
Patients infected with Leishmania braziliensis develop chronic lesions that often fail to respond to treatment with antiparasite drugs. To determine whether genes whose expression is highly variable in lesions between patients might influence disease outcome, we obtained biopsies of lesions from patients before treatment with pentavalent antimony and performed transcriptomic profiling on these clinical samples. We identified genes that were highly variably expressed between patients, and the variable expression of these genes correlated with treatment outcome. Among the most variable genes in all the patients were componen...
Source: Science Translational Medicine - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
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Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
by Md. Abu Musa, Risa Nakamura, Asma Hena, Sanjay Varikuti, Hira L. Nakhasi, Yasuyuki Goto, Abhay Satoskar, Shinjiro Hamano Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is the most common form of leishmaniasis and is caused by several species ofLeishmania parasite. Clinical presentation of CL varies from a self-healing infection to a chronic form of the disease determined by the virulence of infectingLeishmania species and host immune responses to the parasite. Mouse models of CL show contradictory roles of lymphocytes in pathogenesis, while acquired immune responses are responsible for host protection from diseases. To reconcile the inc...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
by Ayako Morimoto, Kazuyuki Uchida, James K. Chambers, Kai Sato, Jing Hong, Chizu Sanjoba, Yoshitsugu Matsumoto, Junya Yamagishi, Yasuyuki Goto Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is caused by parasitic protozoa of the genusLeishmania and is characterized by clinical manifestations such as fever, hepatosplenomegaly and anemia. Hemophagocytosis, the phenomenon of phagocytosis of blood cells by macrophages, is found in VL patients. In a previous study we established an experimental model of VL, reproducing anemia in mice for the first time, and identified hemophagocytosis by heavily infected macrophages in the spleen as a possible ...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
The molecular mechanisms underlying biological differences between two Leishmania species that cause cutaneous disease, L. major and L. amazonensis, are poorly understood. In L. amazonensis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling drives differentiation of nonvirulent promastigotes into forms capable of infecting host macrophages. Tight spatial and temporal regulation of H2O2 is key to this signaling mechanism, suggesting a role for ascorbate-dependent peroxidase (APX), which degrades mitochondrial H2O2. Earlier studies showed that APX-null L. major parasites are viable, accumulate higher levels of H2O2, generate a greater...
Source: Infection and Immunity - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Fungal and Parasitic Infections Source Type: research
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Source: Chemico Biological Interactions - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
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Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
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Source: Fitoterapia - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Fitoterapia Source Type: research
In this study, we intend to explore linkage between organ specific immune response and eicosanoids. We suggest that eicosanoids (early immune modulators) and their organ specific expressions, possibly tune the outcome of mφ differently at different sites. We have observed that liver showed better containment of parasitic load than spleen, where we have found higher expression of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) enzyme along with IL-12 and iNOS. However, in spleen, enzymes of the PGE2 pathway (PGE2 cytosolic and PGE2 microsomal) along with IL-10 were predominantly higher. To further corroborate our findings, in vitro assays were c...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - Category: Lipidology Source Type: research
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