Current and emerging tools for detecting protozoan cysts and oocysts in water

Publication date: Available online 15 October 2019Source: TrAC Trends in Analytical ChemistryAuthor(s): Sona Jain, Thyago Gois Costa Melo, Silvio Santana Dolabella, Juewen LiuAbstractWater-borne protozoan parasites like Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Entamoeba and Toxoplasma are responsible for 1.7 billion cases of diarrhea globally, representing the second most frequent reason for mortality among children under five. They show an environmentally resistant cyst/oocyst stage. Despite their importance, the standard analytical methods for their detection still rely on immunostaining followed by microscopic analysis. In recent years, new methods have been reported with potential for improved environmental diagnosis. This review focuses on the cyst and oocysts of the common water-borne protozoan parasites and explores the biosensors and nanotechnology-based options for their detection in the environment. New developments including the use of aptamers to replace antibodies, use of nanomaterials to substitute organic dyes, and the development of new signaling methods such as surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, and cantilever based mass measurement are detailed. Some future research opportunities are discussed to address the current limitations of the analytical methods.
Source: TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

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Authors: Ma DW, Lee MR, Hong SH, Cho SH, Lee SE Abstract Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis are the main diarrhea-causing parasitic pathogens; however, their prevalence in Korea is unknown. Here, we conducted a survey to determine the prevalence and genotype distribution of these 2 pathogens causing acute diarrhea in 8,571 patients hospitalized in 17 Regional Institute of Health Environment sites in Korea, during 2013-2016. C. parvum and G. duodenalis were detected and genotyped by nested PCR, and the isolate were molecularly characterized by sequencing the glycoprotein 60 (Gp60) and β-giardin genes...
Source: Korean Journal of Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Tags: Korean J Parasitol Source Type: research
Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are major intestinal pathogens that can cause diarrheal diseases in humans, especially children. Enterocytozoon bieneusi is another parasite which can cause gastrointes...
Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
Authors: Savaş Şen Z, Taşar MA, Demirel Kaya F, Güneş A, Vezir E, Hızarcıoğlu Gülşen H Abstract Cryptosporidium spp. is one of the leading causes of parasitic diarrhea. It is the most common parasite in humans all over the world with Giardia. Cryptosporidium is an important cause of chronic diarrhea in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients. Patients with normal immune system may have an asymptomatic course or clinical presentation such as acute watery diarrhea without blood and persistent diarrhea. The severity and duration of the disease may be a re...
Source: Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni - Category: Microbiology Tags: Mikrobiyol Bul Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: This was the first study on the prevalence of IPIs in Abadan and Khorramshahr cities, southwest of Iran. Intestinal parasites are still the main public health concern in these regions. Health education, improving sanitary conditions, screening and treatment of infected people, particularly in rural and semi-urban areas can be helpful. PMID: 31729305 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Infect Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research
Conclusion: To our knowledge, no studies have been done in these areas before. The anthroponotic transmission has an important role in giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis epidemiology in this studied area. PMID: 31673254 [PubMed]
Source: Iranian Journal of Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Tags: Iran J Parasitol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 29 October 2019Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell ResearchAuthor(s): Gonzalo Federico Mayol, María Victoria Revuelta, Agostina Salusso, María Carolina Touz, Andrea Silvana RópoloAbstractNuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking of proteins is a highly regulated process that modulates multiple biological processes in eukaryotic cells. In Giardia lamblia, shuttling has been described from the cytoplasm to nuclei of proteins during the biological cell cycle of the parasite. This suggests that a mechanism of nucleocytoplasmic transport is present and funct...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular Cell Research - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Shin Parasitic diseases have serious health, social, and economic impacts, especially in the tropical regions of the world. Diseases caused by protozoan parasites are responsible for considerable mortality and morbidity, affecting more than 500 million people worldwide. Globally, the burden of protozoan diseases is increasing and is been exacerbated because of a lack of effective medication due to the drug resistance and toxicity of current antiprotozoal agents. These limitations have prompted many researchers to search for new drugs against protozoan parasites. In this review, we have compiled the latest informati...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Authors: Tolouei S, Autixier L, Taghipour M, Burnet JB, Bonsteel J, Duy SV, Sauvé S, Prévost M, Dorner S Abstract The variability of fecal microorganisms and wastewater micropollutants (WWMPs) loads in relation to influent flow rates was evaluated for a water resource recovery facility (WRRF) in support of a vulnerability assessment of a drinking water source. Incomplete treatment and bypass discharges often occur following intense precipitation events that represent conditions that deviate from normal operation. Parasites, fecal indicator bacteria, and WWMPs concentrations and flow rate were measured...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research
Abstract Giardia duodenalis is a cosmopolitan zoonotic protozoan parasite causing giardiasis, one of the most common diarrhoeal diseases in human and animals. Beyond its public health relevance, Giardia represents a valuable and fascinating model microorganism. The deep-branching phylogenetic position of Giardia, its simple life cycle and its minimalistic genomic and cellular organization provide a unique opportunity to define basal and "ancestral" eukaryotic functions. The eukaryotic 14-3-3 protein family represents a distinct example of phosphoserine/phosphothreonine-binding proteins. The extended netw...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research
Abstract Infection with Giardia produces a wide range of clinical outcomes. Acutely infected patients may have no overt symptoms or suffer from severe cramps, diarrhea, nausea and even urticaria. Recently, post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue syndrome have been identified as long-term sequelae of giardiasis. Frequently, recurrent and chronic Giardia infection is considered a major contributor to stunting in children from low and middle income countries. Perhaps the most unusual outcome of infection with Giardia is the apparent reduced risk of developing moderate-to-severe diarrhea due to ot...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research
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