Global Challenges for the ‘NextGen’

By Lindsay FalveyMELBOURNE, Oct 15 2019 (IPS) Success has many parents – so the saying goes. In the case of the massive successes of international agricultural research, no one person can claim parentage. There are heroes along the way such as Norman Borlaug and his early cereal breeding, and the team that eliminated the cattle disease Rinderpest from the world – smallpox is the only other disease that has been totally eradicated. Another is the founder of The Crawford Fund, Derek Tribe, who was also instrumental in the creation of what is now the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), which I chair. However, it would be more correct to highlight the thousands of scientists who have contributed to the world’s greatest feat of feeding an extra three billion people when pundits said it was impossible. More than 30% of the world was hungry in the 1960s; today it’s around 15% yet population has doubled. Australia has been a consistent funder and collaborator in this major success, much of which was achieved through international agricultural research centres, particularly those that form CGIAR, a global research-for-development partnership working for a food-secure future. Australians have been highly represented in these and other elite research centres since their beginnings in the 1960s. Now, 50 years on, a new generation of agricultural scientists, thought leaders and research managers is needed to carry on this scientific and humanitaria...
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Development & Aid Economy & Trade Education Environment Featured Food & Agriculture Global Headlines Health Migration & Refugees Poverty & SDGs TerraViva United Nations Source Type: news

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Abstract Monkeypox virus is a zoonotic Orthopoxvirus (OPXV) that causes smallpox-like illness in humans. In Cameroon, human monkeypox cases were confirmed in 2018, and outbreaks in captive chimpanzees occurred in 2014 and 2016. We investigated the OPXV serological status among staff at a primate sanctuary (where the 2016 chimpanzee outbreak occurred) and residents from nearby villages, and describe contact with possible monkeypox reservoirs. We focused specifically on Gambian rats (Cricetomys spp.) because it is a recognized possible reservoir and because contact with this species was common enough to render suffi...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
AbstractMonkeypox is a viral disease with a clinical presentation resembling that of smallpox. Although monkeypox is considered to be an important zoonotic viral disease, its epidemiology remains poorly understood, especially the spatial and temporal distribution of the disease. The present study examined weekly reports of monkeypox cases collected from 2000 to 2015 at the health zone scale in the Democratic Republic of Congo. SaTScan® was performed to identify spatial and temporal clusters of monkeypox cases. Significant primary spatial clusters were detected in the districts of Sankuru and Tshuapa. A centrifugal patt...
Source: EcoHealth - Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Abstract Poxvirus (PXV) infections are a common cause of cutaneous signs. In France, certain forms of poxvirus are frequent and benign (molluscum contagiosum), while others are rare but potentially serious (cowpox virus [CPXV]). Whereas only smallpox and molluscum contagiosum viruses have a human reservoir and are transmitted between humans, most poxvirus infections are zoonoses having only animal reservoirs. Only a small number of poxviruses are responsible for infection in humans, but the increasing number of new pets, some of which are exotic, coupled with the rapid rise in international travel are creating a g...
Source: Annales de Dermatologie et de Cenereologie - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Ann Dermatol Venereol Source Type: research
Humans have made many dietary mistakes over the years but two mistakes, in particular, stand out: close contact with animals, mostly ruminants, who conveyed their diseases to us and the adoption of the seeds of grasses as human food. These two practices not only changed the course of human history but also human disease. Over the last several centuries, Westerners have populated North America, South America, Pacific islands and other regions. Equipped with superior tools of warfare such as swords and muskets, contact with Westerners decimated indigenous people such as the millions of native Americans, Aztecs, and Amazonian...
Source: Wheat Belly Blog - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Wheat Belly Lifestyle gluten-free grain-free grains joint pain Source Type: blogs
This report highlights the recent accomplishments of GVN researchers in several important areas of medical virology, including strategies for the eradication of smallpox, measles, polio, SARS and vector-borne or zoonotic infections, emergence and intervention strategies for retroviruses and arboviruses, preparedness for outbreaks of Filo- and other hemophilic viruses, pathogenesis, impact and prevention of respiratory viruses, as well as, viruses affecting the central and peripheral nervous system. Also threats in crisis settings like refugee camps were presented.
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
This report highlights the recent accomplishments of GVN researchers in several important areas of medical virology, including strategies for the eradication of smallpox, measles, polio, SARS and vector-borne or zoonotic infections, emergence and intervention strategies for retroviruses and arboviruses, preparedness for outbreaks of Filo- and other hemophilic viruses, pathogenesis, impact and prevention of respiratory viruses, as well as, viruses affecting the central and peripheral nervous system. Also threats in crisis settings like refugee camps were presented. PMID: 30690044 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research
by Sarah Anne J. Guagliardo, Mary G. Reynolds, Joelle Kabamba, Beata Nguete, Robert Shongo Lushima, Okito E. Wemakoy, Andrea M. McCollum Endemic to the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), monkeypox is a zoonotic disease that causes smallpox-like illness in humans. Observed fluctuations in reported cases over time raises questions about when it is appropriate to mount a public health response, and what specific actions should be taken. We evaluated three different thresholds to differentiate between baseline and heightened disease incidence, and propose a novel, tiered algorithm for public health action. Monkeypox surv...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
The repeated outbreaks of zoonotic infectious diseases with epidemic potential in Central and West Africa, such as Ebola, Rift valley fever, Chikungunya and Dengue, continue to pose major public health threats to regional, continental and global health security (WHO, 2018a,b). Whilst lessons are being learnt from each outbreak (Zumla et al., 2017), and the ‘One Human-Environmental-Animal Health’ approach is gaining momentum (Eteng et al., 2018), much more remains to be done to achieve a substantial change of the status quo (Zumla et al., 2016).
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
Vincent visits the Smithsonian Institution and speaks with Sabrina Sholts, Jon Epstein, and Ed Niles about the exhibit Outbreak: Epidemics in a Connected World. <span data-mce-type=”bookmark” style=”display: inline-block; width: 0px; overflow: hidden; line-height: 0;” class=”mce_SELRES_start”></span>&lt;span data-mce-type=”bookmark” style=”display: inline-block; width: 0px; overflow: hidden; line-height: 0;” class=”mce_SELRES_start”&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&amp;lt;span […]
Source: virology blog - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: This Week in Virology ebola virus epidemic influenza virus MERS National Museum of Natural History Nipah virus One Health outbreak SARS smallpox virus Smithsonian spillover viral viruses zoonosis zoonotic Source Type: blogs
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