Understanding CD8+ T Cell Immunity to Trypanosoma cruzi and How to Improve It.

Understanding CD8+ T Cell Immunity to Trypanosoma cruzi and How to Improve It. Trends Parasitol. 2019 Oct 10;: Authors: Acosta Rodríguez EV, Araujo Furlan CL, Fiocca Vernengo F, Montes CL, Gruppi A Abstract The protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas' disease, endemic in Latin America but present worldwide. Research efforts have focused on the examination of immune mechanisms that mediate host protection as well as immunopathology during this parasitic infection. The study of CD8+ T cell immunity emerges as a key aspect given the critical importance of parasite-specific CD8+ T cells for host resistance throughout the infection. In recent years, new research has shed light on novel pathways that modulate the induction, maintenance, and regulation of CD8+ T cell responses to T. cruzi. This new knowledge is setting the ground for future vaccines and/or immunotherapies. Herein, we critically review and analyze the latest results published in the field. PMID: 31607632 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Trends in Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

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by Claudia Magalh ães Calvet, Tatiana Araújo Silva, Diane Thomas, Brian Suzuki, Ken Hirata, Jair Lage Siqueira-Neto, James H. McKerrow Chagas Disease, caused by the protozoan parasiteTrypanosoma cruzi, is responsible for up to 41% of the heart failures in endemic areas in South America and is an emerging infection in regions of North America, Europe, and Asia. Treatment is suboptimal due to two factors. First, the lack of an adequate biomarker to predict disease severity and response to therapy; and second, up to 120-days treatment course coupled with a significant incidence of adverse effects from the drug ...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Background: American trypanosomiasis or Chagas disease represents a major health problem and continues to be endemic in large areas of Latin America. The causal agent of this emergent parasitic infectious disease is Trypanosoma cruzi. At present, the amount of infected people worldwide projected the World Health Organization sums to 8 –10 million. T. cruzi contains a major antigen, cruzipain (Cz), with an unusual C-terminal extention (C-T), retained in the mature protein. C-T bears a number of post translational modifications and is responsible for the immunogenicity of the molecule.
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: 0533 Source Type: research
Chagas disease (CD), caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is endemic to parts of Mexico and Central/South America. Chagas heart disease develops in 20-30% of patients; manifestations include conduction abnormalities (e.g. right bundle branch block [RBBB]), ventricular tachycardia (VT), and progressive dilated cardiomyopathy1. The estimated prevalence of CD in the US exceeds 300,000 people2, and CD accounts for ∼19% of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy3, 7.5% of pacemakers4, and 5% of conduction abnormalities5 among Latin American immigrants in California.
Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Research Letter Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS The results reinforce the recommendation that these standards be considered for performance evaluations of commercialised immunoassays and should be an integral step in the development of new test components or assay paradigms. PMID: 32725060 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the double or triple infection is a phenomenon existing in almost all the coendemics areas and mammals studied, which might influence the mechanisms of adaptation and pathogenicity of these parasites. PMID: 32655075 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research
Chagas disease is an endemic chronic parasitosis in Latin America affecting more than 7 million people. Around 100 million people are currently at risk of acquiring the infection; however, no effective vaccine has been developed yet. Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of this parasitosis and as an intracellular protozoan it can reside within different tissues, mainly muscle cells, evading host immunity and allowing progression towards the chronic stage of the disease. Considering this intracellular parasitism triggers strong cellular immunity that, besides being necessary to limit infection, is not sufficient to er...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Chronic human infection by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, known as Chagas disease, results in heart failure and death in 20 to 30% of affected individuals. Recognition and treatment of the infection are difficult. Disease control requires elimination of the vector, the reduviid bug, that infests poor quality housing in endemic areas. In South America, control has largely succeeded in the Southern Cone countries — Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Southern Brazil and São Paulo, and Paraguay — but lags severely in the Northern Triangle (Central American) countries: El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala.
Source: The American Journal of Medicine - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Chronic human infection by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, known as Chagas disease, results in heart failure and death in 20%-30% of affected individuals. Recognition and treatment of the infection are difficult. Disease control requires elimination of the vector, the reduviid bug, that infests housing of poor quality in endemic areas. In South America, control has largely succeeded in the Southern Cone countries —Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, southern Brazil and São Paulo, and Paraguay—but lags severely in the Northern Triangle (Central American) countries: El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala.
Source: The American Journal of Medicine - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
The occurrence of the major vectors of Chagas disease has historically been linked to poor rural housing, but urban or peri-urban infestations are increasingly being reported. We evaluated a simple risk index ...
Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
par I Abstract Chagas disease caused by the hemoflagelate parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is one of the most prevalent endemic parasitosis affecting 7-8 millions of people. Due to the complexity of the infection, no vaccines are available up to now. The extraordinary adjuvant capacity of BCG was explored in this work to develop a vaccine candidate to protect against Trypanosoma cruzi infection by using recombinant BCG vaccine platform. Three antigens of the parasite corresponding to an N and a C terminal fragments of the enzyme trans-sialidase (NT-TS and CT-TS respectively) and a fragment of the enzyme Cruzipain (CZf) ...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research
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