Molecular control of neurotransmitter linked to autism described
New research examines the role of KCC2, a transporter responsible for the discharge of chloride in cells, in developing disorders such as epilepsy and autism.
Epilepsy and autism frequently co-occur. Epilepsy confers an increased risk of autism and autism confers an increased risk of epilepsy. Specific epilepsy syndromes, intellectual disability, and female gender present a particular risk of autism in individuals with epilepsy. Epilepsy and autism are likely to share common etiologies, which predispose individuals to either or both conditions. Genetic factors, metabolic disorders, mitochondrial disorders, and immune dysfunction all can be implicated.
Pre-eclampsia was associated with a slightly increased risk of epilepsy, autism and other neurodevelopmental problems in offspring.
Authors: Uysal SP, Sahin M Abstract Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant, multisystem disorder that is characterized by cellular and tissue dysplasia in With the advent of genetic and molecular techniques, mutations in TSC1 or TSC2 genes were discovered to be responsible for mTOR overactivation, which is the underlying mechanism of pathogenesis. TSC is a highly heterogenous clinical entity with variable presentations and severity of disease. The brain, heart, skin, eyes, kidneys, and lungs are commonly involved in this syndrome, with the neurologic symptoms comprising a significant source of mo...
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders involving age-dependent gene dysregulation. Reelin is a glycoprotein that varies its expression throughout lifetime and controls cortical patterning and synaptogenesis. Brain and plasma reelin levels have been reported to be low in adults with autism; as well as in children with autism, but only when compared to control adults. Therefore, reelin expression levels in children with autism are unclear. For this reason, we compared plasma reelin levels in children with autism and children without autism (non-ASD) of similar ages to evaluate reelin expres...
Abstract Preeclampsia is a dangerous hypertensive disorder of pregnancy with known links to negative child health outcomes. Here, we review epidemiological and basic neuroscience work from the past several decades linking prenatal preeclampsia to altered neurodevelopment. This work demonstrates increased rates of neuropsychiatric disorders [e.g., increased autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)] in children of preeclamptic pregnancies, as well as increased rates of cognitive impairments [e.g., decreased intelligence quotient (IQ), academic performance] and neurological disease (e...
Findings may have implications for understanding epilepsy, autism spectrum disorders.
Conclusions: Preliminary literature suggests that FMT may be a promising treatment option for several neurological disorders. However, available evidence is still scanty and some contrasting results were observed. A limited number of studies in humans have been performed or are ongoing, while for some disorders only animal experiments have been conducted. Large double-blinded randomized controlled trials are needed to further elucidate the effect of FMT in neurological disorders.
Mahmood D Al-MendalawiJournal of Pediatric Neurosciences 2020 15(1):65-65
This study documents the importance of measuring the physical and neurobehavioural correlates of ASD phenotypes to unravel the underlying molecular mechanisms in patient subgroups. PMID: 32159884 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Publication date: Available online 5 March 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Teresa Sierra-Arregui, Javier Llorente, Paula Giménez Minguez, Jan Tønnesen, Olga Peñagarikano