Sympathetic regulation of the NCC in norepinephrine-evoked salt-sensitive hypertension in Sprague-Dawley rats.

Sympathetic regulation of the NCC in norepinephrine-evoked salt-sensitive hypertension in Sprague-Dawley rats. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2019 Oct 14;: Authors: Frame AA, Puleo F, Kim K, Walsh KR, Faudoa E, Hoover RS, Wainford RD Abstract Salt sensitivity of blood pressure is characterized by inappropriate sympathoexcitation and renal sodium reabsorption during high salt intake. In salt-resistant animal models, exogenous norepinephrine infusion promotes salt-sensitive hypertension and prevents dietary sodium-evoked suppression of the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC). Studies of the adrenergic signaling pathways that modulate NCC activity during norepinephrine infusion have yielded conflicting results implicating α1- and/or β-adrenoceptors and a downstream kinase network that phosphorylates and activates the NCC, including with- no-lysine kinases (WNKs), STE20/SPS1-related proline alanine-rich kinase (SPAK), and oxidative stress response 1 (OxSR1). In these studies, we used selective adrenoceptor antagonism in norepinephrine-infused male Sprague-Dawley rats to investigate the differential roles of α1- and β-adrenoceptors in sympathetically-mediated NCC regulation. Norepinephrine infusion evoked salt-sensitive hypertension and prevented dietary sodium-evoked suppression of NCC mRNA, protein expression, phosphorylation, and in vivo activity. Impaired NCC suppression during high salt intake in norepinephrine-infused rats was paralle...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

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es MA Abstract The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) regulates body functions in normal and pathological conditions and is characterized by the presence of a neuroplastic phenomenon, termed ganglionic long-term potentiation (gLTP). In hypertension, either in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) or in humans, sympathetic hyperfunction, such as elevated SNS outflow and changes in synaptic plasticity have been described. Because enhanced SNS outflow is detected in the hypertensive stage and, more importantly, in the prehypertensive phase of SHR, here we explored whether synaptic plasticity, particularly gLTP, was mod...
Source: Neural Plasticity - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research
In conclusion, HFD-induced hypertension is not driven by increased sympathetic neurotransmission to MA in male and female Dahl ss rats. PMID: 31731103 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 November 2019Source: Pharmacological ResearchAuthor(s): Aline C. Oliveira, Elaine M. Richards, Mohan K. RaizadaAbstractPulmonary hypertension (PH) is classically considered a disease of pulmonary vasculature which has been the predominant target for drug development and pH therapy. Despite significant advancement in recent years in identification of new drug targets and innovative treatment strategies, the prognosis of pH remains poor, with median survival of 5 years. Recent studies have demonstrated involvement of neuroinflammation, altered autonomic and gastrointestinal functions and...
Source: Pharmacological Research - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
In quadrupeds, the arterial baroreflex has dominance in the reflex homeostatic responses, which protect against haemorrhage. In humans, it is the low pressure cardiopulmonary reflex, which protects against the analogous cardiovascular challenge of gravity-dependent venous pooling with standing. To preserve orthostatic cardiovascular homeostasis with the emergence of bipedalism in humans the low pressure reflex, a minor, subsidiary reflex in quadripeds, was co-opted. Mirroring the imperfect skeletal evolution to bipedalism, this cardiovascular development has been problematic, with dysregulation manifesting as disabling ort...
Source: Journal of Hypertension - Category: Cardiology Tags: REVIEWS AND META-ANALYSES Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 1 November 2019Source: Brain, Behavior, and ImmunityAuthor(s): Ida T. Fonkoue, Paul J. Marvar, Seth Norrholm, Yunxiao Li, Melanie L. Kankam, Toure N. Jones, Monica Vemulapalli, Barbara Rothbaum, J. Douglas Bremner, Ngoc-Anh Le, Jeanie ParkAbstractPost-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with a greater risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Inflammation, impaired baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) decreased parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) and overactive sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity are suggested as contributing mechanisms. Increasing severity of PT...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusions Acute oculomotor palsy may be a risk factor for rupture of ipsilateral unruptured aneurysms, but more basic research and clinical trial evidence of intracranial aneurysms are needed to confirm this.
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research
In conclusion, D. brunonianum possess the potential to combat the fructose mediated hypertension and metabolic perturbations, which may partially be due to its chemical constituents. PMID: 31674843 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Natural Product Research - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Nat Prod Res Source Type: research
Abstract Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with a greater risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Inflammation, impaired baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) decreased parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) and overactive sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity are suggested as contributing mechanisms. Increasing severity of PTSD symptoms has been linked to greater cardiovascular risk; however, the impact of PTSD symptom severity on inflammation and autonomic control of blood pressure has not yet been explored. We hypothesized that increasing PTSD symptom severity is linked to higher in...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Brain Behav Immun Source Type: research
Obesity hypertension is driven sympathetic neurotransmission to the heart and blood vessels. We tested the hypothesis that high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hypertension is driven by sympathetic neurotransmission to mesenteric arteries (MA) in male but not female Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl ss) rat. Rats were fed a control diet (CD; 10  kcal% from fat) or HFD (60 kcal% from fat) beginning at 3 weeks (wk) of age; measurements were made at 10-, 17- and 24-wk. Body weight increased with HFD, age and sex. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was higher in HFD versus CD rats from both sexes at 17- and 24-wk.
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Spinal cord injury (SCI) can have profound effects on the autonomic and cardiovascular systems, notably with injuries above high-thoracic levels that result in the development of autonomic dysreflexia (AD) characterized by volatile hypertension in response to exaggerated sympathetic reflexes triggered by afferent stimulation below the injury level. Pathophysiological changes associated with the development of AD include sprouting of both nociceptive afferents and ascending propriospinal 'relay' neurons below the injury, as well as dynamic changes in synaptic inputs onto sympathetic preganglionic neurons. ...
Source: Experimental Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research
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