Lactic Acid Treatment of Cereals and Dietary Phytase Modified Fecal Microbiome Composition Without Affecting Expression of Virulence Factor Genes in Growing Pigs

Besides the major nutrients, phosphorus (P) is an essential mineral for both the host animal and the porcine gut microbiota. Different strategies including phytase supplementation and more recently lactic acid (LA) are used to enhance the P availability from cereals in pig diets; however, their impact on the gut microbiota has been rarely related to fecal shedding of opportunistic pathogens. The present study investigated the effect of phytase supplementation and the treatment of dietary cereals with 2.5% LA on the fecal microbiome composition of metabolic active bacteria and expression of virulence factor genes of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens in growing pigs. Phytase supplementation reduced the fecal abundance of the most abundant Lactobacillaceae family, whereas the LA-treatment of cereals had a stronger impact on the bacterial community, reducing amylolytic, pullulanolytic and hemicellulolytic Lactobacillaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae as well as the fecal bacterial species richness (Chao1) and diversity (Shannon index). Mainly the family Clostridiaceae benefited from the decline in the aforementioned families, being enriched by both dietary treatments. Multigroup data integration using sparse partial least squares-discriminant analysis showed that among the most discriminative operational taxonomic units (OTU) especially two unclassified Clostridiaceae-OTUs, one Prevotella copri-like OTU and one OTU within the vadinCA11 group wer...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Related Links:

In this study, a novel trivalent fusion protein including immunogenic epitopes of three virulence factors of, NetB, alpha toxin and a metallopeptidase protein (NAM) was designed using in silico studies. Circular dichroism spectra was applied for determination of secondary structure and folding properties of the purified recombinant NAM (rNAM) expressed in E. coli. The antigenicity of rNAM was confirmed by induction of immune response in rabbit and neutralization experiments of the toxins in cell culture studies. To this end, anti-rNAM antisera neutralized the crude toxins produced by a wild type virulent C. perfringens str...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Int J Biol Macromol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 November 2019Source: PlasmidAuthor(s): Sarah Revitt-Mills, Carmen Lao, Marie Archambault, Dena Lyras, Julian I. Rood, Vicki AdamsAbstractMany of the disease-causing toxins of the pathogenic bacterium Clostridium perfringens are harboured on large, highly stable, conjugative plasmids. Previous work has established the requirement of a ParMRC-like partitioning system for plasmid maintenance, but little is known about other mechanisms used to ensure stable plasmid inheritance. The archetypal 47 kb Tcp plasmid, pCW3, encodes a gene, resP, whose putative product has sequence similarity to ...
Source: Plasmid - Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research
Authors: Tolouei S, Autixier L, Taghipour M, Burnet JB, Bonsteel J, Duy SV, Sauvé S, Prévost M, Dorner S Abstract The variability of fecal microorganisms and wastewater micropollutants (WWMPs) loads in relation to influent flow rates was evaluated for a water resource recovery facility (WRRF) in support of a vulnerability assessment of a drinking water source. Incomplete treatment and bypass discharges often occur following intense precipitation events that represent conditions that deviate from normal operation. Parasites, fecal indicator bacteria, and WWMPs concentrations and flow rate were measured...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activity of several organic acids and their derivatives against Gram-positive (G+) and Gram-negative (G−) bacteria. Butyric acid, valeric acid, monopropionin, monobutyrin, monovalerin, monolaurin, sodium formate, and ProPhorce—a mixture of sodium formate and formic acid (40:60 w/v)—were tested at 8 to 16 concentrations from 10 to 50,000 mg/L. The tested bacteria included G− bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica Typhimurium, and Campylobacter jejuni) and G+ bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Clostridium pe...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Conclusion: Specific standards should be kept to prevent outbreaks during athletic events. This was the first time that a foodborne outbreak due to Clostridium perfringens was investigated in the country. Laboratory investigation for toxins should be enhanced, especially in foodborne outbreaks where clinical manifestations of cases are found to be compatible with infection caused by a toxin.
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
In this study, three replicates of manure and digestate were collected from five farm biogas plants receiving animal manure in order to assess the occurrence and concentrations of sporulating (Clostridium botulinum,Clostridioides difficile,Clostridium perfringens) and nonsporulating (Listeria monocytogenes, thermotolerantCampylobacter spp.,Salmonella,Escherichia coli, enterococci) bacteria. Concentrations ofE. coli, enterococci, andC. perfringens in digestates ranged from 102 to 104, 104 to 105, and
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
In conclusion, the large diversity of agent combinations and disease situations detected in neonatal diarrhea outbreaks of this study stand for a more personalized diagnosis and management advice at a farm level.
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
This study aims to design, express, and purify a novel chimeric protein, as a serotype-independent vaccine candidate against Shigella containing full-length Shigella invasion plasmid antigen B (IpaB) and a C-terminal fragment (residues 194-319) of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE) as a mucosal adjuvant. Several online databases and bioinformatics software were utilized to design the chimeric protein and the relative recombinant gene. The recombinant gene encoding IpaB-CPE194-319 was synthesized, cloned into pACYCDuet-1 expression vector, and transferred to E. coli Bl21 (DE3) cells. IpaB-CPE194-319 was then expres...
Source: Molecular Biology Reports - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Mol Biol Rep Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 28 August 2019Source: Microbial PathogenesisAuthor(s): Pengfei Wang, Xiaoyu Huang, Zunqiang Yan, Qiaoli Yang, Wenyang Sun, Gao Xiaoli, Luo Ruirui, Shuangbao GunAbstractClostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) type C is one of major pathogenic causing diarrhea and other intestinal inflammatory diseases in piglets, which seriously affects the healthy development of the swine industries. Studies have found that miRNAs play important roles in regulating piglet diarrhea challenged by pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella. However, little is known miRNAs in the ileum of diarrheic piglets caused by ...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 August 2019Source: Food ControlAuthor(s): E. Gkogka, M.W. Reij, L.G.M. Gorris, M.H. ZwieteringAbstractTo assess the risk of C. perfringens toxico-infections related to the consumption of Cornish pasties in the United Kingdom, a stochastic risk assessment model was created. Exposure to the pathogen was modelled as the result of contamination of different ingredients (i.e. beef and pepper), application of different cooling scenarios at room temperature and considering pasties of a number of common sizes. The model predicted a mean of 213 cases of gastroenteritis per million people in the...
Source: Food Control - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
More News: Calcium | Carbohydrates | Clostridium Perfringens | Diets | Gastroenteritis | Genetics | Microbiology | Nutrition | Phosphorus | Study