Sequence properties of certain GC rich avian genes, their origins and absence from genome assemblies: case studies

More and more eukaryotic genomes are sequenced and assembled, most of them presented as a complete model in which missing chromosomal regions are filled by Ns and where a few chromosomes may be lacking. Avian ...
Source: BMC Genomics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research

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Publication date: 19 November 2019Source: Cell Reports, Volume 29, Issue 8Author(s): Ying Xu, Ruchao Peng, Wei Zhang, Jianxun Qi, Hao Song, Sheng Liu, Haiyuan Wang, Min Wang, Haixia Xiao, Lifeng Fu, Zheng Fan, Yuhai Bi, Jinghua Yan, Yi Shi, George F. GaoSummarySince 2013, H7N9 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have caused more than 1,600 human infections, posing a threat to public health. An emerging concern is whether H7N9 AIVs will cause pandemics among humans. Molecular analysis of hemagglutinin (HA), which is a critical determinant of interspecies transmission, shows that the current H7N9 AIVs are still dual-receptor trop...
Source: Cell Reports - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
This study highlights the remarkable genetic diversity in Blastocystis sp. isolates from zoo animals and provides the first molecular evidence from spotted deer, gayal and grey langur. Due to circulation of large percentage of potentially zoonotic subtypes in the wild animals, there is a higher risk of zoonotic transmission of Blastocystis sp. in the zoo keepers and visitors.Graphical abstract
Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
In this study, we demonstrate a simple and rapid strategy for visual detection of multiple strains of IAVs (H1 to H16 subtypes) using peptide nucleic acid (PNA) as a biosensor and unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a reporter. The design principle of the assay is based on the color change on account of free PNA-induced aggregation of AuNPs in the presence of non-complementary viral RNA sequence and vice-versa. The assay could detect IAV RNA with a visual limit of detection of 2.3 ng. The quantification of RNA with a considerable accuracy on a simple spectrophotometer was achieved on plotting the PNA-induced colorim...
Source: Analytica Chimica Acta - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Anal Chim Acta Source Type: research
Global environmental change is leading to an increase in the frequency, intensity, and duration of extreme weather events, so effective environmental management requires an understanding not only of the physiological response of organisms to increased mean temperatures, but also to extreme environmental conditions. To determine the physiological consequences of heatwaves on energy and water balance of arid-adapted zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), we measured field metabolic rate and water turnover rate of wild, free-living finches during a heatwave (consecutive days of maximum ambient temperature of 40–45°C) ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Recently, Hu and colleagues declared in this journal that they had isolated two H3N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) that were derived from recombination events (1). AIVs pose great challenges for disease control due to their rapid evolution. Their viral genomes are comprised of eight negative-strand RNA segments, and the lack of a proofreading mechanism during RNA replication results in a high frequency of point mutations. In addition to generating genetic diversity by rapid mutation, if multiple AIV strains coinfect a single cell, then the eight segments of the AIV genome can reassort and yield progeny virions with novel ...
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 November 2019Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular &Integrative PhysiologyAuthor(s): L. Gerardo Herrera M, Beatriz F. Esnard H, L. Margarita Sánchez, Carlos A. Mancina GAbstractNectarivorous vertebrates might include sugar-dilute nectar in their diet and they are expected to undergo compensatory feeding. However, physiological constraints might limit the intake of sugar-dilute nectar, affecting energy budgets. Among other physiological processes, the limiting role of osmoregulation is supported by enhanced intake rate of dilute sugar solutions by ...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular and Integrative Physiology - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
This study demonstrates the usefulness of the HPAI H5N1 HA2 E29 epitope as a DIVA antigen in HPAI H5N1 vaccinated and infected chickens.Research Highlight E29 (HA2 position 488-516) epitope is antigenic in chickenAntibodies to E29 are elicited following live H5N1 virus infection in chickenE29 epitope is a potential DIVA antigen for use in ELISA. PMID: 31738584 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Avian Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Most Salmonella serovars cause disease in many host species, while a few serovars have evolved to be host specific. Very little is known about the mechanisms that contribute to Salmonella host specificity. We compared the interactions between chicken primary macrophages (CDPM) and host-generalist serovar Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, host-adapted Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin, and avian host-specific Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum. S. Gallinarum was taken up in lower numbers by CDPM than S. Typhimurium and S. Dublin; however, a higher survival rate was observed for this serovar. In addition, S. Typh...
Source: Infection and Immunity - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Bacterial Infections Source Type: research
Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) is an important human and animal pathogen. Despite the apparent similarities in their known virulence attributes, some ExPEC strains can cross the host species barrier and present a zoonotic potential, whereas other strains exhibit host specificity, suggesting the existence of unknown mechanisms that remain to be identified. We applied a transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS) strategy to investigate the ExPEC XM strain, which is capable of crossing the host species barrier, and to screen for virulence-essential genes in both mammalian (mouse) and avian (du...
Source: Infection and Immunity - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Bacterial Infections Source Type: research
Linton Koray Ergünay We obtained a Jingmen tick virus (JMTV) isolate, following inoculation of a tick pool with detectable Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) RNA. We subsequently screened 7223 ticks, representing 15 species in five genera, collected from various regions in Anatolia and eastern Thrace, Turkey. Moreover, we tested specimens from various patient cohorts (n = 103), and canine (n = 60), bovine (n = 20) and avian specimens (n = 65). JMTV nucleic acids were detected in 3.9% of the tick pools, including those from several tick species from the genera Rhipicephalus and Haemaphysalis, and Hyalo...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
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