Enterococcus faecalis exploits the human fibrinolytic system to drive excess collagenolysis: implications in gut healing and identification of druggable targets.

Enterococcus faecalis exploits the human fibrinolytic system to drive excess collagenolysis: implications in gut healing and identification of druggable targets. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2019 Oct 11;: Authors: Jacobson RA, Wienholts K, Williamson AJ, Gaines S, Hyoju S, van Goor H, Zaborin A, Shogan BD, Zaborina O, Alverdy JC Abstract Perforations, anastomotic leak and subsequent intraabdominal sepsis are among the most common and feared complications of invasive interventions in the colon and remaining intestinal tract. During physiologic healing, tissue protease activity is finely orchestrated to maintain the strength and integrity of the submucosa collagen layer in the wound. We have previously demonstrated in both mice and humans that the commensal microbe Enterococcus faecalis selectively colonizes wounded colonic tissues and disrupts the healing process by amplifying collagenolytic matrix-metalloprotease activity toward excessive degradation. Here we demonstrate for the first time a novel collagenolytic virulence mechanism by which E. faecalis is able to bind and locally activate the human fibrinolytic protease plasminogen (PLG), a protein present in high concentrations in healing colonic tissue. E. faecalis-mediated PLG activation leads to supraphysiologic collagen degradation; in this study, we demonstrate this concept both in vitro and in vivo. This pathoadaptive response can be mitigated with the PLG inhibitor tranexamic acid (TX...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 13 November 2019Source: Annals of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Christopher W. Baugh, Michael Levine, David Cornutt, Jason W. Wilson, Richard Kwun, Charles E. Mahan, Charles V. Pollack, Evie G. Marcolini, Truman J. Milling, W. Frank Peacock, Rachel P. Rosovsky, Fred Wu, Ravi Sarode, Alex C. Spyropoulos, Todd C. Villines, Timothy D. Woods, John McManus, James WilliamsBleeding is the most common complication of anticoagulant use. The evaluation and management of the bleeding patient is a core competency of emergency medicine. As the prevalence of patients receiving anticoagulant agents and v...
Source: Annals of Emergency Medicine - Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 12 November 2019Source: Saudi Pharmaceutical JournalAuthor(s): Mohd. Imran, Meenakshi Sajwan, Bader Alsuwayt, Mohammad AsifAbstractChitosan derivatives are reported as anticoagulants in the literature. This work was undertaken to develop novel chitosan derivatives as anticoagulants. The sulfonated derivatives of chitosan were formed by the reaction of chitosan derivatives with chlorosulfonic acid in N-N-dimethylformamide. The structures of these derivatives were established by FTIR and 1H-NMR spectra. The prepared derivatives were evaluated for their in vivo anticoagulant effects by the t...
Source: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 12 November 2019Source: Canadian Journal of CardiologyAuthor(s): Mohammed Shurrab, Asaf Danon, Sami Alnasser, Benedict Glover, Anna Kaoutskaia, Mark Henderson, David Newman, Eugene Crystal, Dennis KoAbstractBackgroundThe choice of antithrombotic therapy for atrial fibrillation (AF) patients who have an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is challenging. We aimed to assess outcomes between dual antithrombotic therapy with DOACs plus an antiplatelet agent (Dual therapy) in comparison to warfarin plus two antiplatelet agents (Triple therap...
Source: Canadian Journal of Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 8 November 2019Source: Food Research InternationalAuthor(s): Marco Túlio Pardini Gontijo, Jackson de Sousa Silva, Pedro Marcus Pereira Vidigal, José Guilherme Prado MartinAbstractThe microbiota contributes to artisanal cheese bioprotection and biopreservation through inter and intraspecific competition. This work aimed to investigate the phylogenetic distribution of the repertoire of bacteriocin structural genes of model lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in order to investigate its respective role in the artisanal cheeses microenvironment. A phylogenetic analysis of rRNA 16S gene f...
Source: Food Research International - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
An 85-year-old woman was admitted  for examination of anemia and black stools. A blood test revealed a reduction in her hemoglobin level from 12.7 to 6.6 g/dL (7.9×103 to 4.1×103 mol/L) over a month, suggesting upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a large esophageal polyp near the esophagogastric junction (Figure 1). The polyp that was fragile was accidentally resected and removed endoscopically. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed a hematoma containing numerous Enterococcus faecalis bacterial masses without epithelial tissue (Figure 2).
Source: Mayo Clinic Proceedings - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tags: Medical image Source Type: research
This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the ethics standards defined by the EU legislation on the use of experimental animals (2010/63/EU) and Czech animal welfare act. The protocol was approved by the Institute of Microbiology animal care and use committee (approval ID: 85/2015 and 108/2016). Diets and Experimental Design In most experiments, shortly after weaning, the mice were switched either to animal protein-based diet—control (aCD, 176 g/kg crude protein; Cat# C1000) and high-protein diet (aHPD, 514 g/kg crude protein; Cat# C1001) or plant protein-based diet—control (pCD, 17...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
ConclusionsLTRs who develop DNS‐VRE infection have higher bleeding complications and longer, more complex hospitalizations compared to those who develop DS‐VRE infection post‐transplantation; however mortality at 30 days and 6 months is not significantly worse. Further study is needed to determine optimal strategies for the prevention and treatment of DNS‐VRE infections in LTRs.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Source: Transplant Infectious Disease - Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Tags: Original Report Source Type: research
We describe the case of a 77-year-old immunocompetent woman with a history of chronic rhinosinusitis who presented with a pathologic Le Fort I fracture after a forceful sneeze. Imaging revealed diffuse sinus opacification and a Le Fort type I complex fracture involving the maxilla, pterygoid plates, clivus, and right nasal bridge. The patient underwent endoscopic debridement of her sinuses, which revealed mucosal dehiscence and otherwise normal healthy bleeding tissue. Anatomic pathology identified necrotic bone with invasive fungal hyphae. Cultures demonstrated Burkholderia cepacia, diphtheroid organisms, and Enterococcus...
Source: Ear, Nose and Throat Journal - Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Tags: Ear Nose Throat J Source Type: research
This study examined the relationships between indomethacin (INDO)‐induced intestinal injury/bleeding, small bowel overgrowth (SBO) and dissemination of enterococci, and the contribution of bile secretion to these pathological responses. Rats received either a sham operation (SO) or bile duct ligation (BDL) prior to administration of two daily subcutaneous doses of saline or INDO, and 24 h later, biopsies of ileum and liver were collected for plating on selective bacterial media. Fecal hemoglobin (Hb) and blood hematocrit (Hct) were measured to assess intestinal bleeding. Of the four treatment groups, only SO/INDO ra...
Source: Physiological Reports - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Original Research Source Type: research
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