Suppression of Disease-Associated B Lymphocytes by GAD65 Epitope-Carrying Protein-Engineered Molecules in a Streptozotocin-Induced Mouse Model of Diabetes.

Suppression of Disease-Associated B Lymphocytes by GAD65 Epitope-Carrying Protein-Engineered Molecules in a Streptozotocin-Induced Mouse Model of Diabetes. Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother. 2019 Oct;38(5):201-208 Authors: Manoylov IK, Boneva GV, Doytchinova IA, Mihaylova NM, Tchorbanov AI Abstract Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune syndrome defined by the presence of autoreactive T and B cells, which results in destruction of insulin-producing beta cells. Autoantibodies against GAD65 (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65)-a membrane-bound enzyme on pancreatic beta cells, contribute to beta cells' destruction and the loss of pancreatic functions. Mouse FcγRIIb on B lymphocytes possesses an inhibitory effect on the activity of these cells. We hypothesized that it may be possible to suppress GAD65-specific B cells in mice with diabetes using chimeric molecules, containing an anti-FcγRIIb antibody, coupled to peptide B/T epitopes derived from the GAD65 protein. With these engineered chimeras, we expect to selectively co-cross-link the anti-GAD65-specific B cell receptor (BCR) and FcγRIIb, thus delivering a suppressive signal to the targeted B cells. An anti-FcγRIIb monoclonal antibody and two synthetic peptide epitopes derived from the GAD65 molecule were used for chimeras' construction. The suppressive activity of the engineered molecules was tested in vivo in mice with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes. These chimeri...
Source: Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy - Category: Microbiology Tags: Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother Source Type: research

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Conclusion: Patients with type 1 DM should be examined for thyroid diseases, and patients with suspected thyroid disease should be evaluated with a thyroid ultrasound. Type 1 DM and PTC coexistence albeit very rare; It should be known that type 1 diabetes can be seen together with thyroid cancer. PMID: 31686641 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Diabetes Reviews - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Curr Diabetes Rev Source Type: research
Conclusion: Pancreatic atrophy may be more common among children with DM, suggesting more advanced exocrine disease. However, data in this exploratory cohort also suggest increased autoimmunity and hypertriglyceridemia in children with DM, suggesting that risk factors for type 1 and type 2 DM, respectively may play a role in mediating DM development in children with pancreatitis.
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Article: Pancreatology Source Type: research
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by persistent hyperglycemia. Its two most common forms are type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), for which genetic and environmental risk factors act in synergy. Because it occurs in children and involves infectious, autoimmune or toxic destruction of the insulin-secreting pancreatic beta-cells, type 1 diabetes has been called juvenile or insulin-deficient diabetes. In type 2, patients can still secrete some insulin but its effectiveness may be attenuated by ‘insulin resistance.’ There is also a group of rare forms of diabetes...
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion: This study is the largest to date analyzing the potential influence of neighborhood deprivation on ADs. Our results indicate that neighborhood deprivation may affect risk of ADs, independent of individual level sociodemographic characteristics. For health care policies, both individual and neighborhood level approaches seem to be of importance.
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
This article discusses the case of a child with type 1 diabetes who was successfully treated with a very low-carbohydrate diet, resulting in normal levels of HbA1c and normal blood glucose 95% of the time in a range of 70-180 mg/dL (4.0 mmol/L-10 mmol/L). Therefore, further studies are needed to verify how a very low carbohydrate diet impacts child development. PMID: 31393762 [PubMed - in process]
Source: British Journal of Nursing - Category: Nursing Authors: Tags: Br J Nurs Source Type: research
Abstract The importance of vitamin D and its role in several biological processes has been a topic of interest in recent years. Vitamin D is an essential nutrient that is needed for metabolic bone health and for maintaining bone calcium homeostasis. It is primarily synthesized in the skin on exposure to sunlight. Of late, vitamin D deficiency has been associated with conditions such as obesity, poor control of asthma and other autoimmune diseases, which has led to questions about its potential role in causation and management of these conditions. Given the increase in data about this topic, providers may often hav...
Source: Pediatric Annals - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research
This study aimed to assess islet insulin secretion and insulin resistance in Chinese patients with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA).MethodsTwelve patients with LADA, 10 with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), 10 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and 10 nondiabetic healthy controls (HCs) were included. Patients with LADA were subtyped according to the glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (GADA) titer (LADA1, GADA titer  ≥ 180 U/mL; LADA2, GADA titer 18–180 U/mL). Insulin secretion and sensitivity were assessed using hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic–euglycemic clamp tests, respec...
Source: Acta Diabetologica - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Our study showed a higher incidence of autoimmune diseases in TS, which is in line with the literature; however, the impact of iXq, or spontaneous / inducted puberty was not confirmed.
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Abstract Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterised by a destruction of pancreatic  cells, which leads to absolute insulin deficiency. Persistently high glycaemia causes vascular damage throughout the body. Microvascular complications com-prise the following: nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Macrovascular complications include coronary heart disease (CHD), which may result in myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease (leading to strokes), and peripheral vascular disease. The pathogene-sis of vascular complications is multifactorial and is probably the combination...
Source: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Source Type: research
We described a 9-month boy who was admitted to our hospital because of severe pneumonia and developed DRESS 3 weeks later. In addition, we performed a literature review of diabetes mellitus associated with DRESS by searching the PubMed. A total of 16 articles and 27 related case reports were obtained between 2001 and 2018. The mean age was 46yr. The duration from the onset of DRESS to the development of DM was 21d on average. 21 patients were diagnosed F1TD, 5 patients were confirmed T1DM, and 1 patient was defined T2DM. GAD were detected in 4 cases. Of 22 cases in which virus examination were carried out, evidence of viru...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
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