Neuroinflammation disorders exacerbated by environmental stressors

Neuroinflammation is a condition characterized by the elaboration of proinflammatory mediators within the central nervous system. Neuroinflammation has emerged as a dominant theme in contemporary neuroscience due to its association with neurodegenerative disease states such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. While neuroinflammation often is associated with damage to the CNS, it also can occur in the absence of neurodegeneration, e.g., in association with systemic infection.
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research

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Abstract In the central nervous system (CNS), a specific loss of focal neurons leads to mental and neurological disorders like dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, etc. AD is a neurological degenerative disorder, which isprogressive and irreversible in nature and is the widely recognized reason for dementia in the geriatric populace. It affects 10% of people above the age of 65andis the fourth driving reason for death in the United States.Numerous evidence suggests that the neuronal compartment is not the only genesis of AD, but transcription factorsalso hold significant i...
Source: CNS and Neurological Disorders Drug Targets - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research
Astrocytes perform multiple essential functions in the developing and mature brain, including regulation of synapse formation, control of neurotransmitter release and uptake, and maintenance of extracellular ion balance. As a result, astrocytes have been implicated in the progression of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, and Parkinson's disease. Despite these critical functions, the study of human astrocytes can be difficult because standard differentiation protocols are time-consuming and technically challenging, but a differentiation protocol recently developed in our laborator...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Developmental Biology Source Type: research
This paper discusses dysfunction of glycosyltransferases as a factor and potential therapeutic target in neurodegenerative diseases including ALS, Alzheimer, Huntington, and Parkinson disease.Brain
Source: Medscape Today Headlines - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Neurology & Neurosurgery Journal Article Source Type: news
Abstract Changes in gene expression play an important role in evolution and can be relevant to evolutionary medicine. In this work, a strong relationship was found between the statistical significance of evolutionary changes in the expression of orthologous genes in the five or six homologous mammalian tissues and the across-tissues unidirectionality of changes (i.e., they occur in the same direction in different tissues -- all upward or all downward). In the area of highly significant changes, the fraction of unidirectionally changed genes (UCG) was above 0.9 (random expectation is 0.03). This observation indicat...
Source: Biosystems - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: Biosystems Source Type: research
Abstract Neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington disease are have serious concern due to its effect on the quality of life of affected persons. Neurodegenerative diseases have some limitations for both diagnostic as well as at treatment level. Introducing nanotechnology, for the treatment of these diseases may contribute significantly in solving the problem. There are several treatment strategies for the neurodegenerative diseases, but their limitations are the entry into the due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The present review highlights the application of ...
Source: CNS and Neurological Disorders Drug Targets - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research
Abstract Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and hydrogen polysulfides are recognized as important signaling molecules that are generated physiologically in the body, including the central nervous system (CNS). Studies have shown that these two molecules are involved in cytoprotection against oxidative stress and inflammatory response. In the brain system, H2S and polysulfides exert multiple functions in both health and diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), memory decline, and glioma. Mechanistically, S-Persulfidation (also known as S-sulfuration or S-sulfhydration) ...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research
Abstract Neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Huntington's disease (HD), are characterized by progressive neuronal dysfunction and death. Current studies have established detrimental modifications in brain protein function as well as structure which stimulate their aggregation, misfolding and deposition in and around the neurons, as an important hallmark of neurodegenerative disorders. Posttranslational modification (PTM) of proteins including phosphorylation, acetylation, glycosylation, palmitoylation, SUMOylation, and u...
Source: CNS and Neurological Disorders Drug Targets - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research
Abstract Despite differences in presentation, age-related dementing diseases such as Alzheimer's (AD), Parkinson's (PD), and Huntington's diseases (HD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) may share pathogenic processes. This review aims to systematically assemble and compare findings in various biochemical pathways across these four dementias. PubMed and Google Scholar were screened for articles reporting on brain and biofluid measurements of metals and/or metabolites in AD, PD, HD, or DLB. Articles were assessed using specific a priori-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of 284 papers identified, 198 met c...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research
Authors: Cummings J Abstract Neuropsychiatric syndromes and symptoms play increasingly important roles in research diagnostic criteria for neurodegenerative disorders. Diagnostic criteria were reviewed including those for dementia, Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment, mild behavioral impairment, prodromal Alzheimer's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, prodromal dementia with Lewy bodies, Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy, frontotemporal dementia, primary progressive aphasia, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, traumatic encephalopathy syndrome, Huntington' disease, amyo...
Source: The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Geriatr Psychiatry Source Type: research
Authors: Martins AC, Gubert P, Villas Boas GR, Meirelles Paes M, Santamaría A, Lee E, Tinkov AA, Bowman AB, Aschner M Abstract INTRODUCTION: Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and prion disease represent important public health concerns. The etiology of neurodegenerative diseases is not completely understood, but genetic factors and environmental factors clearly contribute to their development. As environmental factors, heavy metals such as manganese (Mn) an essential trace element, are required for several physiologi...
Source: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics - Category: Neurology Tags: Expert Rev Neurother Source Type: research
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