Neuroinflammation disorders exacerbated by environmental stressors

Neuroinflammation is a condition characterized by the elaboration of proinflammatory mediators within the central nervous system. Neuroinflammation has emerged as a dominant theme in contemporary neuroscience due to its association with neurodegenerative disease states such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. While neuroinflammation often is associated with damage to the CNS, it also can occur in the absence of neurodegeneration, e.g., in association with systemic infection.
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research

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Authors: Tabassum R, Jeong NY Abstract Oxidative phosphorylation is a source of energy production by which many cells satisfy their energy requirements. Endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) are by-products of oxidative phosphorylation. ROS are formed due to the inefficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, and lead to oxidative stress that affects mitochondrial metabolism. Chronic oxidative stress contributes to the onset of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The immediate consequences of oxidat...
Source: International Journal of Medical Sciences - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Int J Med Sci Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 31 October 2019Source: Molecular and Cellular NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Kevin McAvoy, Hibiki KawamataAbstractMitochondria play essential metabolic roles in neural cells. Mitochondrial dysfunction has profound effects on the brain. In primary mitochondrial diseases, mutations that impair specific oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) proteins or OXPHOS assembly factors lead to isolated biochemical defects and a heterogeneous group of clinical phenotypes, including mitochondrial encephalopathies. A broader defect of OXPHOS function, due to mutations in proteins involved in mitochondrial DNA maint...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Abstract Purinergic signaling was proposed in 1972, after it was demonstrated that adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) was a transmitter in nonadrenergic, noncholinergic inhibitory nerves supplying the guinea-pig taenia coli. Later, ATP was identified as an excitatory cotransmitter in sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves, and it is now apparent that ATP acts as a cotransmitter in most, if not all, nerves in both the peripheral nervous system and central nervous system (CNS). ATP acts as a short-term signaling molecule in neurotransmission, neuromodulation, and neurosecretion. It also has potent, long-term (trophic) ...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research
Authors: Delprat B, Crouzier L, Su TP, Maurice T Abstract Calcium exchanges and homeostasis are finely regulated between cellular organelles and in response to physiological signals. Besides ionophores, including voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, ionotropic neurotransmitter receptors, or Store-operated Ca2+ entry, activity of regulatory intracellular proteins finely tune Calcium homeostasis. One of the most intriguing, by its unique nature but also most promising by the therapeutic opportunities it bears, is the sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R). The Sig-1R is a chaperone protein residing at mitochondria-associated endoplasmic ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Abstract Intrabodies (both single-chain Fv and single-domain VH, VHH, and VL nanobodies) offer unique solutions to some of the challenges of delivery and target engagement posed by immunotherapeutics for the brain and other areas of the nervous system. The specificity, which includes the recognition of post-translational modifications, and capacity for engineering that characterize these antibody fragments can be especially well-focused when the genes encoding only the binding sites of the antibody are expressed intracellularly. Multifunctional constructs use fusions with peptides that can re-target antigen-antibo...
Source: Neurobiology of Disease - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Neurobiol Dis Source Type: research
Our world has never witnessed a time of greater promise for improving human health. Many of today’s health advances have stemmed from a long arc of discovery that begins with strong, steady support for basic science. In large part because of fundamental research funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which traces its roots to 1887, Americans are living longer, healthier lives. Life expectancy for a baby born in the U.S. has risen from 47 years in 1900 to more than 78 years today. Among the advances that have helped to make this possible are a 70% decline in the U.S. death rate from cardiovascular disease ...
Source: TIME: Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Healthcare medicine Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 17 October 2019Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): J.V. Cabral-Costa, A.J. KowaltowskiAbstractThe brain is highly dependent on mitochondrial energy metabolism. As a result, mitochondrial dysfunction is a central aspect of many adult-onset neurological diseases, including stroke, ALS, Alzheimer's, Huntington's, and Parkinson's diseases. We review here how different mitochondrial functions, including oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial dynamics, oxidant generation, cell death regulation, Ca2+ homeostasis, and proteostasis are involved in these disorders.
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
This article reviews the evidence for environmental modulation of gut microbiota and its relevance to brain disorders, exploring in particular the implications for neurodegenerative diseases. We will focus on three major environmental factors that are known to influence the onset and progression of those diseases, namely exercise, diet and stress. Further exploration of environmental modulation, acting via both peripheral (e.g. gut microbiota and associated metabolic dysfunction or 'metabolopathy') and central (e.g. direct effects on CNS neurons and glia) mechanisms, may lead to the development of novel therapeutic approac...
Source: Neurobiology of Disease - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Neurobiol Dis Source Type: research
ConclusionsT. tuberosum has been tested for various biological activities and the extracts (tubers in particular) demonstrated a promising potential as an antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and inhibitors of benign prostatic hyperplasia. A lack of alignment between the ethno-medicinal uses and existing biological screenings was observed, indicating the need to explore its potential for the treatment against respiratory affections, urinary affections and blood diseases. Likewise, it is necessary to analyse deeply the relationship that exists between the different tuber colours of T. tuberosum and its use for the ...
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Abstract NAD+ is a pivotal metabolite involved in cellular bioenergetics, genomic stability, mitochondrial homeostasis, adaptive stress responses, and cell survival. Multiple NAD+-dependent enzymes are involved in synaptic plasticity and neuronal stress resistance. Here, we review emerging findings that reveal key roles for NAD+ and related metabolites in the adaptation of neurons to a wide range of physiological stressors and in counteracting processes in neurodegenerative diseases, such as those occurring in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington diseases, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Advances in underst...
Source: Cell Metabolism - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Metab Source Type: research
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