Environmental and genetic contributions to diabetes

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by persistent hyperglycemia. Its two most common forms are type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), for which genetic and environmental risk factors act in synergy. Because it occurs in children and involves infectious, autoimmune or toxic destruction of the insulin-secreting pancreatic beta-cells, type 1 diabetes has been called juvenile or insulin-deficient diabetes. In type 2, patients can still secrete some insulin but its effectiveness may be attenuated by ‘insulin resistance.’ There is also a group of rare forms of diabetes in the young which are inherited as monogenetic diseases.
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: The patients of one major component of APS-2 should be screened for other components of the disease to pick up latent cases. Addison's disease should be ruled out in patients of hypothyroidism who are intolerant to levothyroxine. PMID: 32851966 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Drug Safety - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Drug Saf Source Type: research
Authors: Disoteo OE, Zampetti B, Garascia A, Attanasio R, Cozzi R Abstract A 24-yo female was admitted for acute renal failure, melanoderma, hyponatremia and hyperkalemia. The clinical suspicion of Addison's disease was confirmed by laboratory test and the appropriate replacement therapy with corticosteroids and fludrocortisone was started. In the mean-time primary hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus type 1 were disclosed and treated, thus fulfilling a diagnosis of autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 2. Eighteen months later she was admitted for right sided heart failure. The work-up allowed to diagnose pulmona...
Source: Endocrine, Metabolic and Immune Disorders Drug Targets - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research
Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders, characterized by hyperglycemia, resulting from relative insulin deficiency, often on a background of insulin resistance (type 2 diabetes), or (near) absolute insulin deficiency related to autoimmune pathophysiology (type 1 diabetes). The most common form is type 2 diabetes, and its global prevalence is rising as a result of changes in lifestyle and lengthening of life expectancy.1,2 An estimated 463 million people aged 20 to 79 yr have diabetes,3 which corresponds to 9.3% of the adult population and represents a four-fold increase in diabetes prevalence since 1980.4 Pati...
Source: Anesthesiology - Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease caused by the destruction of the insulin-producing β-cells. An ideal immunotherapy should combine the blockade of the autoimmune response with the recovery of functional target cell mass. With the aim to develop new therapies for type 1 diabetes that could contribute to β-cell mass restoration, a drug repositioning analysis based on systems biology was performed to identify the β-cell regenerative potential of commercially available compounds. Drug repositioning is a strategy used for identifying new uses for approved drugs that are outside the scope of the medical in...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
e;zquiz Aguirre S, Sánchez Landa E Abstract INTRODUCTION: whether hypovitaminosis D is an overarching cause of increased mortality or a prognostic marker of poor health has not been well elucidated. OBJECTIVES: we sought to determine the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-(OH)-D3] levels with the clinical biochemical parameters and mortality risk in chronic diseases. METHODS: we reviewed the clinical charts and collected the clinical biochemical parameters of patients diagnosed with chronic conditions who had at least one 25-(OH)-D3 determination, with or without calcium and vitamin D su...
Source: Nutricion Hospitalaria - Category: Nutrition Authors: Tags: Nutr Hosp Source Type: research
Fight Aging! publishes news and commentary relevant to the goal of ending all age-related disease, to be achieved by bringing the mechanisms of aging under the control of modern medicine. This weekly newsletter is sent to thousands of interested subscribers. To subscribe or unsubscribe from the newsletter, please visit: https://www.fightaging.org/newsletter/ Longevity Industry Consulting Services Reason, the founder of Fight Aging! and Repair Biotechnologies, offers strategic consulting services to investors, entrepreneurs, and others interested in the longevity industry and its complexities. To find out m...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Conclusion: Pancreatic atrophy may be more common among children with DM, suggesting more advanced exocrine disease. However, data in this exploratory cohort also suggest increased autoimmunity and hypertriglyceridemia in children with DM, suggesting that risk factors for type 1 and type 2 DM, respectively may play a role in mediating DM development in children with pancreatitis.
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Article: Pancreatology Source Type: research
This study aimed to assess islet insulin secretion and insulin resistance in Chinese patients with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA).MethodsTwelve patients with LADA, 10 with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), 10 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and 10 nondiabetic healthy controls (HCs) were included. Patients with LADA were subtyped according to the glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (GADA) titer (LADA1, GADA titer  ≥ 180 U/mL; LADA2, GADA titer 18–180 U/mL). Insulin secretion and sensitivity were assessed using hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic–euglycemic clamp tests, respec...
Source: Acta Diabetologica - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
ConclusionsPreclinical and clinical data suggest that BE and/or 11-keto-ß-boswellic acids by inhibiting the expression of proinflammatory cytokines from immune-competent cells, may prevent insulitis and insulin resistance in type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively, and therefore may be an option in the treatment/prevention of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. It is hypothesized that molecularly, BE and 11-keto-ß-boswellic acids act via interference with the IκB kinase/Nuclear Transcription Factor-κB (IKK/NF-κB) signaling pathway through inhibition of the phosphorylation activity of IKK. However, fu...
Source: Phytomedicine - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Maunil K. Desai1 and Roberta Diaz Brinton2,3* 1School of Pharmacy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States 2Center for Innovation in Brain Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States 3Departments of Pharmacology and Neurology, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States Women have a higher incidence and prevalence of autoimmune diseases than men, and 85% or more patients of multiple autoimmune diseases are female. Women undergo sweeping endocrinological changes at least twice during their lifetime, puberty and menopause, with many women undergoin...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
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