Human Hookworm Infection: Is Effective Control Possible? A Review of Hookworm Control Efforts and Future Directions.

Human Hookworm Infection: Is Effective Control Possible? A Review of Hookworm Control Efforts and Future Directions. Acta Trop. 2019 Oct 07;:105214 Authors: Haldeman MS, Nolan MS, Ng'habi KRN Abstract Human hookworm, a soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection caused by either Necator americanus or Anclystoma duodenale, is a major cause of morbidity globally and predominantly affects the world's poorest populations. Transmitted primarily by larval invasion of exposed skin, the adults inhabit the host small intestine, where they consume host blood. The resultant chronic iron deficiency anemia can lead to stunted growth and cognitive deficits in children, reduced work capacity in adults, and a variety of pregnancy complications. Historically, successful STH elimination has only been achieved in regions with concomitant significant economic growth. Since 2001, control of the STHs has been attempted via single-dose mass deworming of at-risk school-aged and preschool-aged children within STH-endemic countries, with the goal of morbidity reduction. Research questioning this strategy has grown in recent years, and current studies are evaluating the effectiveness of novel deworming strategies, including multidrug regimens and expansion of deworming to entire communities. While footwear campaigns may be associated with reduced odds of hookworm infection, the evidence supporting the impact of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions upon hookworm is mix...
Source: Acta Tropica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

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Conclusion: The prevalence of schistosomiasis is high among pregnant women in Njombe-Penja, with some adverse effects on blood levels. ThreeSchistosoma species were found. Female of childbearing age should be considered for mass drug administration.
Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Conclusions: Severe malaria is a highly frequent event in pregnant women, without differences by Plasmodium species. It shows early recognizable dangers signs. Hospital under-reporting was identified in 88% of severe cases as well as a lack of laboratory tests for a more comprehensive diagnosis. A protocol for the clinical diagnosis of pregnant women with malaria is required. PMID: 31529822 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Biomedica : Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Biomedica Source Type: research
(Abstracted from Lancet 2019;393:1428–1439.) In Africa, malaria in pregnancy presents a risk to 50 million women each year due to Plasmodium falciparum infection. Although women in endemic areas are typically asymptomatic when infected with malaria parasites, the infection is associated with maternal anemia and adverse birth outcomes including miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm birth, low birth weight, and infant mortality.
Source: Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey - Category: OBGYN Tags: OBSTETRICS: MEDICAL COMPLICATIONS OF PREGNANCY Source Type: research
Conclusions and Relevance Malaria in pregnancy causes significant perinatal complications. Obstetric providers should be aware of the impact and how to prevent and treat malaria infection during pregnancy. Malaria infection should be suspected in women with concerning symptoms and recent travel to endemic areas. Providers should know the management of uncomplicated and severe malarial infection in pregnancy. Target Audience Obstetricians and gynecologists, family physicians. Learning Objectives After completing this activity, the learner should be better able to assess the adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with...
Source: Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey - Category: OBGYN Tags: CME ARTICLES Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: This study has shown that malaria in pregnancy causes a significant decrease in the platelet count and prolongation in the prothrombin (PT) and the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). There is need for the malaria and haemostatic parameters to be assayed routinely on pregnant women particularly those presenting to antenatal clinic with febrile illness. PMID: 31282411 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Human Antibodies - Category: Biochemistry Tags: Hum Antibodies Source Type: research
AbstractBrucellosis in pregnant women is reported to be associated with obstetric complications (OCs), and adequate data for human brucellosis during pregnancy are largely lacking. We performed this multicenter retrospective cross-sectional study to evaluate the epidemiology, clinical course, treatment responses, and outcomes of brucellosis among pregnant women. The study period comprised a 14-year period from January 2002 to December 2015. All consecutive pregnant women diagnosed with brucellosis in 23 participating hospitals were included. Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, therapeutic, and outcome data along with th...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Iron supplementation before a first pregnancy may improve the future health of mother and baby by reducing maternal anaemia. Iron supplementation could, however, increase malaria infections, notably in primigr...
Source: Malaria Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
Abstract Soil-transmitted nematodes (STNs) infect over a billion people and place several billion more at risk of infection. Hookworm disease is the most significant of these STNs, with over 500 million people infected. Hookworm infection can result in debilitating and sometimes fatal iron-deficiency anemia, which is particularly devastating in children and pregnant women. Currently, hookworms and other soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are controlled by administration of a single dose of a benzimidazole to targeted populations in endemic areas. While effective, people are quickly re-infected, necessitating freque...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research
anemia affects>1.2 billions individuals worldwide, and iron deficiency in the absence of anemia is even more frequent. Total-body (absolute) iron deficiency is caused by physiologically increased iron requirements in children, adolescents, young and pregnant women, by reduced iron intake, or by pathological defective absorption or chronic blood loss. Adaptation to iron deficiency at the tissue level is controlled by iron regulatory proteins to increase iron uptake and retention; at the systemic level, suppression of the iron hormone hepcidin increases iron release to plasma by absorptive enterocytes and recycling macro...
Source: Blood - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Red Cells, Iron, and Erythropoiesis, Review Articles, Review Series, Clinical Trials and Observations Source Type: research
Conclusion The results obtained from this research shows, in general, the fragility in the social and political infrastructure necessary to improve the living conditions of populations, particularly those that depend on family agriculture in drought prone areas. The conditions of social, economic and environmental vulnerabilities presented in the region can be amplified by the drought process, and can aggravate the impacts resulting drought events, thus disadvantaging the population of this region, as shown in the Fig. 1. The general perception of the interviewees of the health sector shows an agreement with what is found...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Source Type: research
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