Diagnosis: gastric intestinal metaplasia – what to do next?

Purpose of review One of the most vexing problems for gastroenterologists is what actions to take after receiving a histological diagnosis of gastric intestinal metaplasia. We approach the problem by starting with suggesting a biopsy protocol that ensures obtaining the biopsies required for diagnosis, assessing the status of the gastric mucosa, and effective communication with the pathologist and patient. Recent findings The rediscovery and integration of the long history of gastric damage and repair resulting in pseudopyloric metaplasia (called SPEM) into the thinking of investigators working with animal models of gastric cancer has resulted in improved ability to separate changes associated with benign repair from those associated with inflammation-associated gastric carcinogenesis. Summary Gastric intestinal metaplasia is a potential reversible product of injury and repair and not directly connected with carcinogenesis. Intestinal metaplasia is a biomarker for prior gastric injury and repair. The risk of gastric cancer is best assessed in relation to the severity, extent, and, most importantly, the cause of the atrophic changes.
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: STOMACH AND DUODENUM: Edited by Mitchell L. Schubert Source Type: research

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ConclusionThe present findings suggest that alterations in gastric cancer leading to ENE are not associated with alterations underpinning the molecular subgroups. Nonetheless, molecular subtyping on the basis of IHC and ISH is feasible and might become clinical routine. Thus, further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms of extranodal extension in gastric cancer.
Source: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Authors: Wang Y, Zhang B, Gao G, Zhang Y, Xia Q Abstract Guanine nucleotide exchange factor T (GEFT), a member of the Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor family, is expressed in a variety of tumors. In the present study, the expression and clinical significance of GEFT in malignant digestive tract tumors was assessed. Tumor and adjacent control samples from 180 patients were tested. Positive GEFT expression rates were 80, 83.33 and 86.67% in esophageal squamous carcinoma (ESCC), gastric carcinoma (GC) and colorectal cancer (CRC), respectively. GEFT expression was associated with diffuse type carcinoma according ...
Source: Oncology Letters - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Lett Source Type: research
AbstractBackground.Alterations in the DNA damage response (DDR) pathway confer sensitivity to certain chemotherapies, radiation, and other DNA damage repair targeted therapies. BRCA1/2 are the most well‐studied DDR genes, but recurrent alterations are described in other DDR pathway members across cancers. Deleterious DDR alterations may sensitize tumor cells to poly (ADP‐ribose) polymerase inhibition, but there are also increasing data suggesting that there may also be synergy with immune checkpoint inhibitors. The relevance of DDR defects in gastrointestinal (GI) cancers is understudied. We sought to characterize DDR...
Source: The Oncologist - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Gastrointestinal Cancer Source Type: research
ConclusionMSI has the potential to become a key predictor for evaluating the degree of malignancy, efficacy and prognosis of tumours. Clinically, MSI patterns will provide more valuable information for clinicians to create optimal individualized treatment strategies based on frameshift peptides vaccines.
Source: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Significantly upregulated WISP1 expression is associated with cancer progression, chemotherapy outcome, and prognosis in GC. Mechanistically, knock-down of WISP1 expression enhances oxaliplatin sensitivity by reducing DNA repair and enhancing DNA damage. WISP1 may be a potential therapeutic target for GC treatment or a potential biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis. PMID: 31636474 [PubMed - in process]
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The present findings suggest that alterations in gastric cancer leading to ENE are not associated with alterations underpinning the molecular subgroups. Nonetheless, molecular subtyping on the basis of IHC and ISH is feasible and might become clinical routine. Thus, further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms of extranodal extension in gastric cancer. PMID: 31541339 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clin Med Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: J Cancer Res Clin Oncol Source Type: research
Conclusion: Results obtained open up avenues for understanding the mechanisms involved in the racial variation in the prevalence of uterine fibroids as well as the predisposing factors.
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
This study was designed to evaluate the effect of excision repair crosscomplementing group 1 (ERCC1) rs11615 codon 118C/T gene polymorphisms ontreatment outcomes in Iranian patients receiving oxaliplatin-based regimens forcolorectal (CRC) and gastric cancers (GC). Patients, who were candidates to receiveoxaliplatin-based chemotherapy, entered into the study. In 2-week intervals, thepatients received combination regimen of oxaliplatin, fluorouracil, and leucovorin(FOLFOX) for 3 months. ERCC1 rs11615 codon 118C/T polymorphism was testedby restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (RFLPPCR)method usin...
Source: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Source: Cancer Management and Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Cancer Management and Research Source Type: research
Conclusions.The association between systemic/local immune response and prognosis differed according to MSI status. Different tumor characteristics and prognoses according to MSI status could be associated with the immunogenicity caused by microsatellite instability and subsequent host immune response.Implications for Practice.This study demonstrates that the density of each subset of tumor‐infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) differed between microsatellite instability (MSI)‐high and non‐MSI‐high tumors. Moreover, the prognostic effect of the preoperative systemic immune response status and TILs differed between the MSI...
Source: The Oncologist - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Gastrointestinal Cancer Source Type: research
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