“Anatomical mechanism of ideation, association and attention” 1895 and “Certain points in neurological histophysiology” 1896: Cajal’s conjectures, then and now

Publication date: Available online 9 October 2019Source: Journal of Chemical NeuroanatomyAuthor(s): Elena I. Antonakou, Lazaros C. TriarhouAbstractThe purpose of this article is two-fold: first, to preserve, in updated English translations, two theoretical papers written by Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852–1934) in 1895 and 1896 under the titles, “Conjectures on the anatomical mechanism of ideation, association and attention” and “Conjectural interpretations of certain points in neurological histophysiology”; and second, to set some of the ideas proposed by Cajal in a modern perspective. In his “Conjectures,” Cajal ventured to explain the mechanisms of perception, association and attention in cellular terms. He introduced the term “impression unit,” which would propagate, leading to conscious act via an “avalanche of conduction.” Additionally, he attributed mental repose and sleep to morphological variations of neuroglia; at times of relaxation, astrocytes would grow appendices that penetrated among nerve cell connections and blocked the conduction of the “nervous current”; in energetic contraction, such glial “pseudopodia” would shrink, allowing neuronal processes to come into contact again. In the sequel to the “Conjectures,” Cajal presented strong arguments defending the neuron theory against the reticular theory. Moreover, he discussed the functional differentiation of...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 13 December 2019Source: Biocybernetics and Biomedical EngineeringAuthor(s): Tao Zhang, Wanzhong Chen, Mingyang LiAbstractEmbedding entropies are powerful indicators in quantifying the complexity of signal, but most of them are only applicable for real-valued signal and the phase information is ignored if the analyzed signal is complex-valued. To assess the complexity of complex-valued signal, a new entropy called complex-valued distribution entropy (CVDistEn) was first proposed in this study. Two rules, namely equal width criterion and equal area criterion, were employed to demarcate the ...
Source: Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering - Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research
Authors: von Kodolitsch Y, Demolder A, Girdauskas E, Kaemmerer H, Kornhuber K, Muino Mosquera L, Morris S, Neptune E, Pyeritz R, Rand-Hendriksen S, Rahman A, Riise N, Robert L, Staufenbiel I, Szöcs K, Vanem TT, Linke SJ, Vogler M, Yetman A, De Backer J Abstract Introduction: The revised Ghent nosology presents classical features of Marfan syndrome. However, behind its familiar face, Marfan syndrome hides less well-known features.Areas covered: The German Marfan Organization listed unusual symptoms and clinical experts reviewed the literature on clinical features of Marfan syndrome not listed in the Ghent nosol...
Source: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy - Category: Cardiology Tags: Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther Source Type: research
This study aimed to investigate the impact of the update on patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in China.Methods: A previous database including consecutive patients with FGIDs (according to Rome III criteria) from gastrointestinal department of a tertiary hospital in China was re-analyzed. Demographic information, clinical symptoms, psychological status (Zung self-rating scale), and sleep quality (Pittsburgh sleep quality index) were compared between patients with Rome III and Rome IV IBS.Results: Of the 946 patients with FGIDs, only 58 (6.1%) were diagnosed with Rome IV IBS [less than 292 (30.9%) under Rome III c...
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Scand J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
Conclusions This validation study demonstrated that a dual-accelerometer system previously validated in a laboratory setting also performs well in semi free-living conditions. Although these results are promising and progressive, further work is needed to expand the scope of this measurement system to detect other components of behavior (e.g., activity intensity and sleep) that are related to health.
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Methodological Advances Source Type: research
ConclusionsUndergraduates' sleep disturbance was a significant predictor of their depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation via changes in their levels of psychological inflexibility. In addition to addressing students' sleep problems directly, it appears to be advantageous to decrease students’ levels of psychological inflexibility to attenuate the potential association between mental health problems and sleep disturbances typically experienced during college.
Source: Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Delirium is common after intracerebral hemorrhage, but severe neurologic deficits may confound its assessment and lead to underdiagnosis. The Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist’s inclusion of nonverbal features may make it more accurate than the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU in patients with neurologic deficits, but novel tools designed for such patients may be warranted.
Source: Critical Care Medicine - Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Neurologic Critical Care Source Type: research
Associations between subjective maternal bonding recalled from the first 16 years of life and current sleep indices were investigated in a clinical sample of 34 adults with major depressive disorder and 36 normal controls (n = 70) using the self-report parental bonding instrument and wrist actigraphy. Results of multiple linear regression analyses indicated that reports of maternal bonding indices were associated with several sleep indices in adulthood independent of depression status. Higher levels of maternal care were associated with greater time in bed and total sleep time. Higher levels of maternal overprotection were...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Efficacy of "Pinggan Formula" in Controlling Acute Type B Aortic Dissection Perioperative Blood Pressure: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2019;2019:6432953 Authors: Zhang H, Zhang D, Sun Y, Lu Y, Feng J, Zhang L, Song C, Jing Z, Yu C, Lu Q Abstract Objective: To explore a new treatment that can proceed from the whole, control blood pressure smoothly and coordinate the treatment of multiple factors causing blood pressure fluctuations. Method: We conducted a single-center, double-blinded, and randomized controlled clinical trial. 48 patients with ...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
Roever L, Tse G, Biondi-Zoccai G. Continuous positive airway pressure and adaptive servoventilation in heart failure patients with central sleep apnea with Cheyne Stokes respiration: are they useful in ameliorating cardiac systolic dysfunction?J Clin Sleep Med. 2019;15(12):1715–1716.
Source: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine : JCSM - Category: Sleep Medicine Source Type: research
Sweetman A, Lack L, McEvoy D. Refining the measurement of insomnia in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.J Clin Sleep Med. 2019;15(12):1717–1719.
Source: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine : JCSM - Category: Sleep Medicine Source Type: research
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