Potential Contribution of Carotid Body-Induced Sympathetic and Renin-Angiotensin System Overflow to Pulmonary Hypertension in Intermittent Hypoxia

AbstractPurpose of ReviewObstructive sleep apnea (OSA), featured by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), is an independent risk for systemic hypertension (HTN) and is associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH). The precise mechanisms underlying pulmonary vascular remodeling and PH in OSA are not fully understood. However, it has been suggested that lung tissue hypoxia, oxidative stress, and pro-inflammatory mediators following CIH exposure may contribute to PH.Recent FindingsNew evidences obtained in preclinical OSA models support that an enhanced carotid body (CB) chemosensory reactiveness to oxygen elicits sympathetic and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) overflow, which contributes to HTN. Moreover, the ablation of the CBs abolished the sympathetic hyperactivity and HTN in rodents exposed to CIH. Accordingly, it is plausible that the enhanced CB chemosensory reactivity may contribute to the pulmonary vascular remodeling and PH through the overactivation of the sympathetic-RAS axis. This hypothesis is supported by the facts that (i) CB stimulation increases pulmonary arterial pressure, (ii) denervation of sympathetic fibers in pulmonary arteries reduces pulmonary remodeling and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in humans, and (iii) administration of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) or blockers of Ang II type 1 receptor (ATR1) ameliorates pulmonary remodeling and PH in animal models.SummaryIn this review, we will discuss the supporting evidence for a plausible contributi...
Source: Current Hypertension Reports - Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Related Links:

Publication date: April 2020Source: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Volume 72Author(s): Daniel E. Lidstone, Faria Z. Miah, Brach Poston, Julie F. Beasley, Janet S. DufekAbstractBackgroundPostural control deficits are commonly reported in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, identification of specific postural sway features that differentiate ASD from other neurodevelopmental disorders has not been examined. The current study employs a cross-syndrome approach by comparing postural sway area and direction-specific features of sway magnitude, sway velocity, and sway complexity between children with AS...
Source: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusions: Hyperuricemia and hypertension may have a synergistic interaction towards renal function loss in addition to their independent impacts. Our findings may provide a straightforward illustration which is easy for the public to realize the hazard of coexistent hypertension and hyperuricemia on renal injury. PMID: 31962051 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Postgraduate Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Postgrad Med Source Type: research
In the article “Debate: Are Stimulant Medications for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Effective in the Long Term? (For),” by David Coghill, published in the October 2019 issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (2019;58:938-939), Dr. Coghill’s affiliation was listed incorrectly. The affiliation within the shaded box preceding the article should have appeared as follows: For: Prof. David Coghill (Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, Australia; the Murdoch Children’s Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia; a...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Correction Source Type: research
.
Source: Cranio - Journal of Craniomandibular and Sleep Practice - Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
The majority of doctors will tell you that there is nothing you can do to reverse fatty liver and that health problems such as cirrhosis and liver failure may be in your future that they will address with the awful “solution” of liver transplant. The truth is the opposite: fatty liver is easily and readily reversible in virtually everybody, provided you take action before irreversible changes take place and are given the right information and tools. In this video, I discuss the three basic phenomena that drive fat deposition, liver damage, and inflammation that lead to this condition: Carbohydrate consumption ...
Source: Wheat Belly Blog - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Open bowel flora carbohydrates carbs Inflammation NAFLD nash triglycerides undoctored wheat belly Source Type: blogs
Discussion and conclusion: Our results demonstrated that sildenafil decreased pathological changes in alveoli, bronchioles, interstitial tissue, and arterioles of rats with COPD and PH. PMID: 31967915 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Pharmaceutical Biology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Pharm Biol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 January 2020Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Ya-Shuo Feng, Si-Dong Yang, Zi-Xuan Tan, Man-Man Wang, Ying Xing, Fang Dong, Feng ZhangAbstractParkinson's disease (PD) is a significantly progressive neurodegenerative disease characterised by both motor and nonmotor disorders. The main pathological characteristics of PD consist of the loss of dopaminergic neurons and the formation of alpha-synuclein-containing Lewy bodies in the substantia nigra. Currently, the main therapeutic method for PD is anti-Parkinson medications, including levodopa, madopar, sirelin, and so on. However, the effect ...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 23 January 2020Source: The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyAuthor(s): Katharina R. Beck, Lucija Telisman, Chris J. van Koppen, George R. Thompson, Alex OdermattAbstractRecent reports described cases of severe hypertension and hypokalemia accompanied by low renin and aldosterone levels during antifungal therapy with posaconazole and itraconazole. These conditions represent characteristics of secondary endocrine hypertension caused by mineralocorticoid excess. Different mechanisms can cause mineralocorticoid excess, including inhibition of the adrenal steroidogenic enzy...
Source: The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
BACKGROUND: Sleep is a reliable correlate of suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs), yet few studies have directly examined negative affect in the context of this association. The present study combined daily experience methods with a laboratory paradigm t...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Suicide and Self-Harm Source Type: news
ConclusionHypertension can be induced by CIH in SD rats. The CIH-induced elevation of BP is at least partially mediated via the Nox4-induced ROS/RhoA/ROCK pathway.
Source: Sleep and Breathing - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
More News: Hyperactivity | Hypertension | Primary Care | Pulmonary Hypertension | Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy | Sleep Apnea | Sleep Disorders | Sleep Medicine