Adoptive cell therapies for posttransplant infections

Purpose of review Viral and fungal infections cause significant morbidity and mortality following hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT), primarily due to the prolonged and complex immunodeficient state that results from conditioning chemo-radiotherapy and subsequent prophylaxis of graft vs. host disease. Although currently available antimicrobial pharmacotherapies have demonstrated short-term efficacy, their toxicities often preclude long-term use, and cessation if frequently associated with recurrent infection. Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) offers the potential to more rapidly reconstitute antimicrobial immune responses in the posttransplant setting. Recent findings Traditional approaches to manufacture of adoptive T-cell therapies are time consuming and limited to single pathogen specificity. Recent advances in the understanding of immunogenic epitopes, improved methods for pathogen-specific T-cell isolation and cultureware technologies is allowing for rapid generation of ACTs for clinical use. Summary The current review summarizes the potential infectious targets and manufacturing methodologies for ACTs and contrasts their clinical efficacy and safety to currently available pharmacotherapies for patients recovering after HSCT.
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEMATOLOGIC MALIGNANCIES: Edited by Miguel A. Sanz Source Type: research

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Conference abstracts
Source: The Aspergillus Website - updates - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Source Type: news
Abstract The D-index assesses neutropenia dynamics. Prolonged neutropenia is a major risk for invasive fungal infection (IFI); we hypothesized that D-index is predictive of IFI risk. We retrospectively reviewed 789 adults who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic transplant (HSCT) from 1/1/2005 to 9/30/2015. Medical records were reviewed from transplant (D0) through Day 100. The D-index was calculated as area over the neutrophil curve until engraftment. 714 patients were included for analysis. Sixteen (2%) developed probable (11) or proven (5) IFI. Median time to IFI was 40 days (range 8-98) after HSCT. Groups w...
Source: International Journal of Hematology - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Int J Hematol Source Type: research
Purpose of review Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) most often occur secondary to acquired immunodeficiency states such as transplantation, AIDS or immune-modulatory treatment for neoplastic and autoimmune disorders. Apart from these acquired conditions, several primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs) can present with IFIs in the absence of iatrogenic immunosuppression. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of PIDs that cause IFIs, which may help clinicians in the diagnosis and management of such infections. Recent findings A growing number of PIDs that cause varying combinations of invasive in...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS: BACTERIAL/FUNGAL: Edited by Monica Slavin Source Type: research
We present a case of disseminated Cunninghamella sp. infection after stem cell transplant for refractory multiple myeloma with formation of bilateral pleural effusions and an aortic mycetoma. PCR analysis of the patient's aortic mycetoma demonstrated a 90% match to Cunninghamella spp. This case illustrates the potential for severe opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised patients that can mimic other disease processes and result in an accelerated demise. PMID: 31665398 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Military Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Mil Med Source Type: research
Conference abstracts
Source: The Aspergillus Website - updates - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Source Type: news
In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of granulocyte collection using medium molecular weight HES (130 kDa) in combination with the Spectra Optia apheresis system. Apheresis was performed for 2 consecutive days from seven donors and the mean total neutrophil yield from the first and second apheresis was 5.27 ± 3.10 × 1010 and 2.91 ± 2.92 × 1010, respectively. Infusion of concentrates from the first apheresis resulted in a significant neutrophil count increase and concentrates from the second apheresis were enough for maintenance of ...
Source: International Journal of Hematology - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Int J Hematol Source Type: research
Conference abstracts
Source: The Aspergillus Website - updates - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Source Type: news
Conference abstracts
Source: The Aspergillus Website - updates - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Source Type: news
Conference abstracts
Source: The Aspergillus Website - updates - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Source Type: news
Conference abstracts
Source: The Aspergillus Website - updates - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Source Type: news
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