Adoptive cell therapies for posttransplant infections

Purpose of review Viral and fungal infections cause significant morbidity and mortality following hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT), primarily due to the prolonged and complex immunodeficient state that results from conditioning chemo-radiotherapy and subsequent prophylaxis of graft vs. host disease. Although currently available antimicrobial pharmacotherapies have demonstrated short-term efficacy, their toxicities often preclude long-term use, and cessation if frequently associated with recurrent infection. Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) offers the potential to more rapidly reconstitute antimicrobial immune responses in the posttransplant setting. Recent findings Traditional approaches to manufacture of adoptive T-cell therapies are time consuming and limited to single pathogen specificity. Recent advances in the understanding of immunogenic epitopes, improved methods for pathogen-specific T-cell isolation and cultureware technologies is allowing for rapid generation of ACTs for clinical use. Summary The current review summarizes the potential infectious targets and manufacturing methodologies for ACTs and contrasts their clinical efficacy and safety to currently available pharmacotherapies for patients recovering after HSCT.
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEMATOLOGIC MALIGNANCIES: Edited by Miguel A. Sanz Source Type: research

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We report the first case of pulmonary mucormycosis following AHSCT for systemic sclerosis (SSc). Patient concerns: A 24-year-old woman with rapidly progressive diffuse cutaneous SSc presented with an acute respiratory distress syndrome 6 days after AHSCT. Diagnoses: The results of clinical and computed tomography scan were consistent with pulmonary mucormycosis and the diagnosis was confirmed by a positive Mucorales Polymerase Chain Reaction on a peripheral blood sample. Interventions and Outcomes: Early antifungal therapy by intravenous amphotericin B provided rapid improvement within 4 days and sustained recover...
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) remains the only curable option for adult patients with hematologic malignancies. According to guidelines published by the American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, allogeneic HCT should be offered to all intermediate ‐ and high‐risk patients with acute leukemia. While matched‐related donor (MRD) grafts continue to be the preferred stem cell source for allogeneic HCT, studies comparing MRD grafts to matched‐unrelated donor (MUD) grafts showed comparable outcomes in patients with acute leukemia. Unfortunat ely, for those without a suitable matched...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Si On Stem Cell Transplantation Source Type: research
Fight Aging! publishes news and commentary relevant to the goal of ending all age-related disease, to be achieved by bringing the mechanisms of aging under the control of modern medicine. This weekly newsletter is sent to thousands of interested subscribers. To subscribe or unsubscribe from the newsletter, please visit: https://www.fightaging.org/newsletter/ Longevity Industry Consulting Services Reason, the founder of Fight Aging! and Repair Biotechnologies, offers strategic consulting services to investors, entrepreneurs, and others interested in the longevity industry and its complexities. To find out m...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
There is no situation so terrible that it will not be silently accepted as set in stone, only given that it has lasted for long enough to become routine. So it is with aging, and all of the pain, suffering, and death that accompanies it. The present furor surrounding COVID-19 is unusual for casting at least a little light upon the point that infectious disease largely kills older people, and in very large numbers, year in and year out. In the normal course of affairs, no-one cares until it is their turn to be old, frail, and vulnerable. The immune system decays with age, becoming simultaneously overactive (inflammag...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs
AbstractInfection is associated with great morbidity and mortality in patients with multiple myeloma (MM), but evidence for invasive fungal infections (IFIs) is lacking. We aimed to investigate risk factors for IFI in MM patients and to determine its impact on patients ’ survival. We retrospectively analyzed MM patients at Taipei Veterans General Hospital in Taiwan between January 2002 and October 2018. MM was diagnosed according to the International Myeloma Working Group criteria. IFI was defined according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group criteria. All risk factor...
Source: Annals of Hematology - Category: Hematology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The frequency of diagnosed patients with ICF syndrome has increased. Early diagnosis of ICF is important since immunoglobulin supplementation or allogeneic stem cell transplantation can improve the disease-free survival rate. PMID: 32533820 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Endocrine, Metabolic and Immune Disorders Drug Targets - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research
AbstractChronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency of phagocyte function due to defective NADPH oxidase (phox). Compared with the common types ofCYBB/gp91phox,NCF1/p47phox, andCYBA/p22phox deficiency,NCF4/p40phox deficiency is a mild and atypical form of CGD without invasive bacterial or fungal infections. It can be diagnosed using serum-opsonizedE.coli as a stimulus in dihydrorhodamine (DHR) assay. Patients withCYBC1/Eros deficiency, a new and rare form of CGD, present as loss of respiratory burst and gp91phox expression in phagocytes. Neutrophils from patients with CGD are deficient in neutrophil e...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
AbstractAllogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) remains the only curable option for adult patients with hematologic malignancies. According to guidelines published by the American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, allogeneic HCT should be offered to all intermediate ‐ and high‐risk patients with acute leukemia. While matched‐related donor (MRD) grafts continue to be the preferred stem cell source for allogeneic HCT, studies comparing MRD grafts to matched‐unrelated donor (MUD) grafts showed comparable outcomes in patients with acute leukemia. Unfortunat ely, for those without a suitable ...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: SI ON STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION Source Type: research
Opportunistic infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in severely immunocompromised patients, such as those given chemotherapy or biological therapies, and those with haematological malignancy, aplastic anaemia or HIV infection, or recipients of solid organ or stem cell transplants. The type and degree of immune defect dictates the profile of potential opportunistic pathogens; T-cell-mediated defects increase the risk of viral (cytomegalovirus, respiratory viruses) and Pneumocystis jirovecii infections, whereas neutrophil defects are associated with bacterial pneumonia and invasive aspergillosis.
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tags: Infection Source Type: research
Rationale: Very severe aplastic anemia (vSAA) with active infections is always fatal. Adequate infection control before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is recommended. Patient concerns: A 38-year-old woman with vSAA suffered from acute perforated appendicitis and invasive pulmonary fungal infection, and she failed to respond to intense antimicrobial therapies. Diagnosis: She was diagnosed with refractory vSAA with stubborn acute perforated appendicitis and invasive pulmonary fungal infection. Interventions: We successfully completed an emergent reduced intensity conditioning-matched unrelated donor (MUD)...
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research
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