Strategies to prevent brain metastasis

Purpose of review The current article reviews the state of art of prevention strategies for brain metastases from solid tumors and touches both old pivotal studies and new directions of personalized molecular approaches. Recent findings Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) has a definite role in the prevention of relapse into the brain for patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) responding to chemotherapy and radiotherapy as it prolongs overall survival (OS). However, the risk of late cognitive deficit following whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) in this patient population is still not well known. Conversely, PCI significantly reduces the incidence of brain metastases and prolongs the disease-free interval in patients with non-SCLC (NSCLC), but does not improve OS thus far. Pharmacologic prevention is a new concept driven by the efficacy of targeted agents on macrometastases from specific molecular subgroups. Summary The future challenges for prevention of brain metastases are represented by the identification of subgroups of patients at higher risk of relapse into the brain coupled with either new WBRT strategies to better preserve cognition or effective molecular agents to target micrometastases.
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM: Edited by Marc Sanson Source Type: research

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Background: Studies on prognosis of different metastasis sites in patients with lung cancer are limited. The aim of present study was to investigate the prognostic value of metastases sites among patients with metastatic lung cancer.Methods: Between 2010 and 2014, patients diagnosed with metastatic lung cancer were selected using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Kaplan-Meier methods were adopted and multivariable Cox regression models were built to compare the prognosis of different metastasis sites.Results: A total of 54,697 eligible patients were identified, including 10,945 (20.0%) patien...
Source: Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Markus Hartl* and Rainer Schneider Center of Molecular Biosciences (CMBI), Institute of Biochemistry, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria The neuronal proteins GAP43 (neuromodulin), MARCKS, and BASP1 are highly expressed in the growth cones of nerve cells where they are involved in signal transmission and cytoskeleton organization. Although their primary structures are unrelated, these signaling proteins share several structural properties like fatty acid modification, and the presence of cationic effector domains. GAP43, MARCKS, and BASP1 bind to cell membrane phospholipids, a process reversibly regulate...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Our data supports that never/ever smoker patients with small-cell lung cancer have better prognosis compared to their smoker counterparts. Further, patients with never/ever smoking history who present with small-cell lung cancer have a different mutation profile compared with smokers, including a high frequency of EGFR, MET, and SMAD4 mutations. Further studies are required to assess whether the differential mutation profile is a consequence of a diverse pathological mechanism for disease onset. Introduction Lung cancer is the most common neoplasia worldwide. Aside from the high incidence, lung cancer a...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
(NRG Oncology) Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI), a technique used to prevent the clinical development of brain metastases, is established as a standard approach for many patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) after initial therapy. While studies established that PCI decreases the incidence of brain metastases for patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC), there is no established indication for its use for such NSCLC patients.
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news
ConclusionsWe disclosed the histologic transformation of NSCLC in BM at a frequency not as low as expected, and speculated it as an evolution promoted by intratumor heterogeneity, though it warrants further prospective multi-institution investigations with comprehensive molecular analysis. Our findings provided further impetus for surgery when the metastatic or recurrent lesion is resectable, and repeated pathologic evaluation to help tailor individualized treatment.
Source: International Journal of Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide, both in new cases and deaths (Ferlay et al., 2012). Non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) account for approximately 60% of all lung cancers and tend to progress in a slower fashion compared to small cell lung carcinomas (SCLC) (approximately 12% of lung cancers) a more aggressive type of lung cancer, known to metastasise to the brain (Kumar et al., 2013). There are several treatment options to be considered for lung cancer patients and they are: surgery (e.g.
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
1157Objectives: 1. Comparison between PET/CT and PET/MRI in detecting distant metastases of lung cancer 2. Review of the potential advantages of PET/MRI compared with PET/CT in assessment of patients with lung cancer 3. Highlight the limitations of PET/MRI in lung cancer assessment Abstract: Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world, causing high morbidity and mortality, and is under active study through use of positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI). Lung cancers are divided into non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) subtypes. The treatment and prog...
Source: Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Authors: Tags: Educational Exhibits Source Type: research
Advanced non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) with activating EGFR mutations initially respond to epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) [1 –3]. However, most patients usually progress after 12 months of treatment [4,5]. Various mechanisms are involved in acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs, including EGFR T790M secondary mutation, MET gene amplification, HER2 gene amplification, and histologic changes such as small-cell lung carcinoma ( SCLC) transformation [4–6].
Source: Lung Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
Brain metastases (BM) are the most common intracranial neoplastic disease in adults, with an incidence of 9 –17% among all brain tumors (Nayak et al., 2012). They are usually caused by lung cancer (either non-small cell (NSCLC) and small cell (SCLC) histologies), breast cancer, melanoma and renal cell carcinoma, with a raising incidence related to the improvements in diagnostic and treatment approaches (Berghoff et al., 2014). However, prognosis remains poor, with a median overall survival (OS) ranging from 3 to 27 months (Brastianos et al., 2013), rendering BM still an unmet medical need.
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
Brain metastases (BM) are the most common intracranial neoplastic disease in adults, with an incidence of 9-17% among all brain tumors (Nayak et al., 2012). They are usually caused by lung cancer (either non-small cell (NSCLC) and small cell (SCLC) histologies), breast cancer, melanoma and renal cell carcinoma, with a raising incidence related to the improvements in diagnostic and treatment approaches (Berghoff et al., 2014). However, prognosis remains poor, with a median overall survival (OS) ranging from 3 to 27 months (Brastianos et al., 2013), rendering BM still an unmet medical need.
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
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