Foraging theory and the propensity to be obese: an alternative to thrift.

Foraging theory and the propensity to be obese: an alternative to thrift. Homo. 2019 Oct 08;: Authors: Baig U, Lokhande L, Lalwani P, Chawla S, Watve M Abstract The evolutionary origin of obesity is classically believed to be genetic or developmentally induced thrift, as an adaptation to ancestral feast and famine conditions. However, recently the thrift family of hypotheses have attracted serious criticism necessitating alternative thinking. Optimization of foraging behaviour is an important aspect of behavioural evolution. For a species evolved for optimizing nutritional benefits against predation or other foraging risks, reduction in foraging risk below a threshold dramatically increases the steady-state body weight. In modern life where feeding is detached from foraging, the behavioural regulation mechanisms are likely to fail resulting into escalation of adiposity. At a proximate level the signalling pathways for foraging optimization involve fear induced signal molecules in the brain including Cocaine and Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART) interacting with adiposity signals such as leptin. While leptin promotes the expression of the fear peptides, the fear peptides promote anorectic action of leptin. This interaction promotes foraging drive and risk tolerance when the stored energy is low and suppresses hunger and foraging drive when the perceived risk is high. The ecological model of foraging optimization and the molecular model of interactio...
Source: Homo - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Related Links:

Publication date: Available online 9 November 2019Source: Preventive MedicineAuthor(s): Stephen T. HigginsAbstractThis Special Issue of Preventive Medicine (PM) is the 6th in a series on behavior change, health, and health disparities. This is a topic of critical importance to improving U.S. population health. There is broad consensus that personal behavior patterns or lifestyle such as substance abuse, physical inactivity/obesity, and non-adherence with medical regimens are among the most important modifiable causes of chronic disease, premature death and population health. Hence, effectively promoting health-related beha...
Source: Preventive Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 November 2019Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Reviews on CancerAuthor(s): Silvano Paternoster, Marco FalascaAbstractPancreatic cancer is one of the leading determinants of global cancer mortality, and its incidence is predicted to increase, to become in 2030 the second most common cause of cancer-related death. Obesity and diabetes are recognized risk factors for the development of pancreatic cancer. In the last few decades an epidemic of diabetes and obesity has been spreading worldwide, forewarning an increase in incidence of pancreatic cancer. This review considers the m...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Reviews on Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
BRITAIN'S obesity crisis is now so bad that it could bankrupt the NHS, experts have warned.
Source: Daily Express - Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
The epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is progressively evolving impacting the type of patients with IBD we will see in clinical practice. In this review, we discuss specific challenges and solutions in the management of (a) obese, (b) older and (c) obstetric (pregnant) patients with IBD. With the global obesity epidemic, almost one in three patients with IBD are obese. Obesity is associated with greater difficulty in achieving remission, higher risk of disease relapse and higher burden and costs of hospitalization in patients with IBD.
Source: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Source Type: research
This article reviews the most updated information about NAFLD-related HCC and provides some insight into strategies that must be considered to reduce its potential disease burden.
Source: Hepatology International - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Background.Obesity is an epidemic, especially in developed countries. This affects the general health of these patients, especially when they are having a major surgical procedure such as total hip arthroplasty (THA). Several articles have described the effects of obesity on THA with varying conclusions. This meta-analysis aims to compare the outcomes, complications, and peri-operative parameters of THA in the obese (BMI ≥30kg/m2) versus non-obese (BMI
Source: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage - Category: Rheumatology Authors: Source Type: research
This article is excerpted from TIME: The Science of Addiction—What We Know. What We’re Learning. In some ways, of course, food is more insidious than drugs, because there’s no such thing as abstinence, no such thing as never starting in the first place, no such thing as being able to say, “Food? Never touch the stuff.” You eat because you’ll die if you don’t, so you spend your life in a sort of nutritional two-step—a little but not too much; go overboard today, cut back tomorrow; eat the good stuff but never the junk. Sometimes you succeed at all of that, and other times yo...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Addiction Diet/Nutrition Obesity Source Type: news
With advancements in technology leading to improvements in survival as well as quality of life,1,2 left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are increasingly used to support patients with end-stage heart failure as either a bridge to cardiac transplantation (BTT) or as destination therapy (DT). Concurrent with the epidemic of heart failure,3 is also the problem of obesity which is present in greater than one third of U.S. adults when defined as a body mass index [BMI]> 30 kg/m2. Obesity is a risk factor for the development of heart failure4 and many obese patients will progress to end-stage disease requiring evaluation fo...
Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewObesity in the older adult is a burgeoning health epidemic that leads to increased morbidity, disability, and institutionalization. This review presents a brief overview of geriatric-specific consequences of obesity by highlighting the risks and benefits of intentional weight loss.Recent FindingsIntentional weight loss reduces the extent of adiposity-related illnesses, yet the approach in older adults is fraught with challenges. Interventions combining caloric restriction and physical exercise (aerobic and resistance) maximize fat loss and minimize loss of muscle and bone. Interventions are also ef...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Physical activity and the influence on metabolic phenotypes is an important area of research as the obesity epidemic continues to rise and remains a potent public health crisis. Physical activity, which is a multifactorial behavior, is a modifiable risk factor for the development of obesity and premature mortality.1 Ample literature reports the importance of physical activity for health promotion and chronic disease prevention.2 In this issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings, Martinez-Gomez et  al3 highlight the need to focus on how individuals transition from differing states of metabolic health, or lack thereof, and the a...
Source: Mayo Clinic Proceedings - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
More News: Amphetamine | Brain | Eating Disorders & Weight Management | Epidemics | Epidemiology | Genetics | Insurance | Neurology | Nutrition | Obesity | Physiology