Schmallenberg virus: a systematic international literature review (2011-2019) from an Irish perspective

AbstractIn Autumn 2011, nonspecific clinical signs of pyrexia, diarrhoea, and drop in milk yield were observed in dairy cattle near the German town of Schmallenberg at the Dutch/German border. Targeted veterinary diagnostic investigations for classical endemic and emerging viruses could not identify a causal agent. Blood samples were collected from animals with clinical signs and subjected to metagenomic analysis; a novel orthobunyavirus was identified and named Schmallenberg virus (SBV). In late 2011/early 2012, an epidemic of abortions and congenital malformations in calves, lambs and goat kids, characterised by arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly were reported in continental Europe. Subsequently, SBV RNA was confirmed in both aborted and congenitally malformed foetuses and also inCulicoides species biting midges. It soon became evident that SBV was an arthropod-borne teratogenic virus affecting domestic ruminants. SBV rapidly achieved a pan-European distribution with most countries confirming SBV infection within a year or two of the initial emergence. The first Irish case of SBV was confirmed in the south of the country in late 2012 in a bovine foetus.Since SBV was first identified in 2011, a considerable body of scientific research has been conducted internationally describing this novel emerging virus. The aim of this systematic review is to provide a comprehensive synopsis of the most up-to-date scientific literature regarding the origin of SBV and the spread of the Sch...
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

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ConclusionGiven the presence of infection in rodents with tularemia agent in the studied area, it is crucial to elucidate the risks of rodent exposure to tularemia for physicians, health personnel and the general population.
Source: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The change of trends in tonsil surgery started long before relevant national guidelines were published. The national trend was associated with considerably less surgical activity overall, a significant decrease in ATE/TE, and a significant increase in TT. Regional differences to the national trend were identified and found to be significant in at least in 7 of 16 federal states. PMID: 31720695 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: HNO - Category: ENT & OMF Tags: HNO Source Type: research
This article first discusses the general requirements for conducting board certification examinations as laid down in the specialty training regulations of the German State Chambers of Physicians. Concrete suggestions are made for training assistants concerning selection of the specialist literature to be processed and allocation of the time in which the material to be covered can be learned. Aspiring medical specialists are provided with suggestions regarding their surroundings and a favorable atmosphere in the final hours before the examination. Furthermore, desirable but also undesirable behaviors of the examinee during...
Source: HNO - Category: ENT & OMF Tags: HNO Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of uncomplicated acute diverticulitis without antibiotics is associated with a significantly shorter hospital stay. There is no significant difference in the percentage of patients requiring additional treatment or intervention to settle in the initial episode, rate of readmission or deferred admission, need for surgical or radiological intervention, recurrence, or complications.
Source: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Current Status Reviews Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 October 2018Source: Research in Veterinary ScienceAuthor(s): Enrica Sozzi, Ana Moreno, Davide Lelli, Simona Perulli, Alice Prosperi, Emiliana Brocchi, Lorenzo Capucci, Alice Papetti, Enrico Giacomini, Giovanni Loris Alborali, Antonio LavazzaAbstractPorcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV), belongs to the genus Alphacoronavirus in the family Coronaviridae and causes severe diarrhoea, vomiting, dehydration and high mortality in seronegative newborn piglets. Thus, a precise and rapid diagnosis of PEDV infection is important for the application of control measures to limit viral disseminati...
Source: Research in Veterinary Science - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Introduction Lassa fever (LF) is a severe acute viral hemorrhagic illness caused by a virus belonging to the family Arenaviridae.1,2 The disease was first discovered in Sierra Leone in the 1950s, but the aetiological agent was first isolated after an outbreak of the disease in a village called Lassa in Borno State, Nigeria claiming the lives of two foreign missionary nurses in 1969.3 The virus exhibits persistent, asymptomatic infection, with profuse urinary virus excretion in Mastomys natalensis rodents, which serve as the natural reservoir.1,2 The virus is shed in their excreta (urine and faeces) of the rodent which can...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Source Type: research
LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog - Emergency medicine and critical care medical education blog aka Tropical Travel Trouble 006 Our medical student who caught shigella on a Nepalese elective has a thirst for adventure. They plan to help at a Bangladesh refugee camp but the latest CDC report states there have been some cases of cholera. They’ve done a little bit of reading and want your help to teach them all about cholera and how they may prepare and best serve their new community. Questions: Q1. What is cholera and how is it transmitted? Answer and inte...
Source: Life in the Fast Lane - Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Tags: Clinical Cases Tropical Medicine cholera diarrhoea john snow ORS rice water diarrhoea watery diarrhoea Source Type: blogs
LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog - Emergency medicine and critical care medical education blog aka Tropical Travel Trouble 004 A medical student who has just returned from their elective in Nepal presents with 1 week of bloody diarrhoea. He has been in the lowlands and stayed with a family in the local village he was helping at. It started three days before he left and he decided to get home on the plane in the hope it would settle. He is now opening his bowels 10x a day with associated cramps, fevers and has started feeling dizzy. Questions: Q1. What is dyse...
Source: Life in the Fast Lane - Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Tags: Clinical Cases Tropical Medicine amoebic dysentery bacillary dysentery e.histolytica entamoeba histolytica shigellosis Source Type: blogs
Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) is a significant drain on efficient and successful cattle production in both dairy and beef systems around the world. Several countries have achieved eradication of this disease, but always through the motivation of stakeholders who accept the benefits of eradication. These include increased cattle welfare and fitness of cattle to withstand other diseases, and decreased costs of production, the latter resulting from both decreased costs spent on managing the disease and decreased losses. This paper provides a systematic review of 31 papers, published between 1991 and 2015, that address the econ...
Source: Veterinary Record - Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Tags: Open access Paper Source Type: research
10 July 2017 – With increasing numbers of people in some countries of the World Health Organization’s Eastern Mediterranean Region affected by acute watery diarrhoea and cholera, WHO in the Region is working with partners, including UNICEF, to save lives in areas where outbreaks are active, and reduce the risk of these diseases crossing into unaffected areas and neighbouring countries.   “The situation has reached a critical point. The number of people with acute watery diarrhoea/cholera in countries in the Region in 2017 alone is higher than the number of people affected worldwide in 2016. Inf...
Source: WHO EMRO News - Category: Middle East Health Source Type: news
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